The women in media is paralleled by

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The term ‘Gender’ refers to range of characteristics
or interdisciplinary concept pertaining to and differentiating between
masculinity and femininity, it may include biological sex or gender identity
the relations between them, and the institutions that govern these
relationships. Gender is often considered to be psychological and cultural
term. People who do not identify male or female gender are often grouped under
the terms of non-binary or genderqueer. Some cultures have specific gender
roles that are distinct from male and female such as hijras who are often
referred as transgenders or third gender. Third gender or third sex is a concept in
which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as
neither man nor woman. 

 Men and women
are portrayed in stereotypical ways that reflect and sustain socially endorsed
views of gender. Society enlists particular expectations for each gender,
rendering what is appropriate and inappropriate behaviour for males and females.
By seeing a person’s clothing we get to know which gender that person belong to
or which category he/she belong to and where that person is going. People wear
clothes by seeing the occasion, place, etc.

For a long time, a commitment to promoting gender
equality in economic outcomes, as in other areas of social development and
human rights, has emphasized women’s empowerment. In television, female
characters are more likely to be in private realm, while males are shown as
public one. Men characters tend to be successful, independent, powerful and
tough. Women are shown as dependent, young, sexy, emotional, who are dominated
by men. The lack of women in media is paralleled by the scarcity of women in
charge of media. Female film directors are even more scarce, and very few women
are behind the scenes in the industry. Maybe if more women had positions of
authority at executive levels, media would portray women in a positive way.

In developed countries women are also considered to
be responsible of the reduction in economic gender disparities or differences.
Despite important advances towards equality, differences in the socioeconomic
outcomes of men and women, the gender differences or stereotypes still persist
both in the developing and developed world. The family is the institution where
gender interactions are likely to be more intense, ranging from marriage and
child-rearing decisions to consumption, time allocation to work and human
capital investment. Like we consider women are the home-makers and caretakers
of the family and they manage the finances carefully rather than men. They know
how to handle issues tactfully.

Media plays a large role in influencing the younger
generation. Media is the most pervasive and one of the most powerful medium
which have a massive reach among the audiences. Media plays an important role
in our society. Media always present both men and women in stereotyped ways.
Men are portrayed as active, adventurous and aggressive, while women are
portrayed as sex objects. Media portray women as sufferers who go through more
of hard times in their life. Even, the environment or the society, we live in
treat men and women as different or indifferent from one another. Women are
also the victims of serious violence.

Media has created two images of women: good women
and bad ones. Good women are portrayed in a positive manner, while bad ones are
those seeking revenge from the positive character. Bad ones are those who play
a negative role. Television communicates the message that men are authority,
women are not. Men are more than women in television programming. The dominance
of men as news anchors who inform us the happenings in the world underlines
their authority and prime-time television contributes to this image by
contributing  and  showing women who need to be rescued by men
and by presenting women as incompetent more than twice as often as men.

television favourably portrays pretty, nurturing, other-focused women. When
stereotypes are overwhelmingly present in popular television shows, viewers
internalize those messages of gender, making it difficult to counter
stereotypical behaviour. Alternatively, women may be given more freedom to do
things outside the home such as going to the market because they know how to
bargain and buy fresh products rather than men. Women in prime-time TV shows
were more likely to be portrayed in marital roles while men were portrayed in
occupational roles.

Advertisers support media and they exert a powerful
influence and it requires a deep and rich understanding of the media options
available. Advertising media options include television advertising, radio
advertising, print publication advertising, internet advertising, out-of-home
media and mobile device advertising. Advertisers want to sponsor shows that
create or expand markets for their products. Media images of women as sexual
objects, devoted homemakers, typical mothers, the very role in which majority
consuming takes place. To live up to these images, women have to buy cosmetics
and other personal care products, diet aids, food, household cleaners, utensils
and appliances, clothes and toys for children, so in short, it is in
advertisers interests to support programming and copy that feature women in
traditional roles. Magazines play a key role in promoting pleasing others as a
primary focus of women’s lives.

Women’s role in the home and men’s role outside of
it are reinforced by newspapers and news programming. Both emphasize men’s
independent activities and, in fact, define news almost entirely as stories
about and by men. As we see in politics, there are more men who are quite
active and there are very less women in politics. Stories about men focus on
work and/or their achievements, reiterating the cultural message that men are
supposed to do, perform. Sometimes, the stories give much importance to the
gender. Meanwhile, the few stories about women almost invariably focus on their
roles as wives, mothers, and homemakers. Even stories about women, who are in
the news, because of achievements and professional activities typically, dwell
on marriage, family life, and other aspects of women’s traditional role. In the
developed world women have caught up with men in terms of human capital
accumulation and the gender gap is also shrinking. This substantial economic
empowerment of women has been accompanied by a decreasing trend in female
domestic violence.

Women are portrayed alternatively either as
decorative objects, who must attract a man to be valuable, or as victims of
men’s sexual impulses. Either way, women are defined by their bodies and how
men treat them. Their independent identities and endeavors are irrelevant to
how they are represented in media, and their abilities to resist exploitation
by others are obscured. Teenage girls portrayed on television displayed
passiveness, an obsession with superficial topics such as shopping, appearance,
and relationships, and the idea of out casting or ignoring those who choose
more serious topics such as academics and careers.

Perhaps the most glaring examples of portrayals of
women as sex objects and men as sexual aggressors occur in music videos as
shown on MTV and many other stations and it is quite common to see such things
on television. Occupational status among men and women in media is clearly
unequal. Not only males are paid more and they are in good position in job than
women. Men have higher social status than women.

Typically, females are shown dancing provocatively
in scant and/or revealing clothing as they try to gain men’s attention. These
can be seen in movies as well. These can create negativity in the minds of
teenagers. Frequently, men are seen coercing women into sexual activities
and/or physically abusing them. It can provoke people to do such things and
these activities will affect women’s reputation. Violence against women is also
condoned in many recent films, serials and it can create negativity in the minds
of people.

Gender roles are prevalent in media, often
portraying women as nurturing, gentle, cooperative, concerned with appearance,
and sensitive to others; while men are viewed as logical, competitive,
independent, assertive, financial providers, skilled in business and dominant
over women. Women in media tend to be represented more negatively than men.
While men are perceived as hard workers, amusing, directive, and physically
aggressive, women are displayed as likeable, warm, submissive, passive, and
weak. Women are also more likely than men to display empathic behaviours such
as affection, sharing, giving, and concern for others. Also, we can see the
women are given more importance in the house and she has to do all the
household chores rather than men are still practised in Indian homes. Though,
very few men help their wives in doing the household work.

The representation of women in terms of age and occupation
was more stereotypical on men’s channels than on women’s channels, whereas men
were represented in more contra-stereotypical ways (e.g., performing household
tasks) on women’s channels. Since, television viewing contributes to the
learning and maintenance of stereotyped perceptions, the results imply that it
is important to strengthen viewers’ defences against the effects of gender
stereotyping when watching gendered television channels, for instance through
media literacy programs in schools. Many societies strive
for equal life opportunities for each gender, and conclude that gender roles
are mainly determined by social environment because biological factors have not
changed as there might be some people who still follow the age-old customs and

Recent developments in the television landscape may provide
new insights on the issue. Though, there is no change in Indian serials. They
still show women as sufferers and fighters who have to face many problems and
tortures who have to prove herself in each and every situation. There are
indications that specific gender-targeted genres (e.g., soaps and teen scene)
might actually showcase both a more equal distribution of men and women as well
as less stereotyping in its gender portrayals. Often gendered, audience groups were targeted via specific
programming and advertising content. Certain advertisements, films, serials or
programs have specific set of target audiences.

We are
living an age of information revolution and we get information through
different sources which are quite useful. Newspapers, radio and
television are all well-known resources for getting information. Although, mass
media as a subject of study is not very old but its history is as old as the
humanity itself. Mass media and journalism have evoked into a strong force,
over the years. Journalism has the power to change the mindset of people. Print
media was the first phase followed by radio and television and later on
internet and websites. People prefer different mediums depending upon the
availability and preferences. In fact, in broader sense, media has two
different segments. One is print media and the other is electronic media.
Electronic media may be more popular than print media, due to its visual power.
But, print media has lasting value. Different mediums have different set of
audiences. Journalism and mass media deal with a wider range of information
comprising collection, writing, editing, proof reading and publication.

The term mass media denotes various forms of
entertainment; television, films, music, newspaper, magazines, internet,
advertising by disseminating information and it is used by media organization
to target and impact youth. Mass media shapes our perception and views of
social reality by presenting only some aspects of reality and by continuation
of messages and images. They don’t present the exact reality but the
exaggeration of the reality. Radio, television, newspaper, magazines, internet
and films play a vital role in spreading information, propagating, educating
and enlightening, strengthening national integration, creating national
identity. Through these mediums we get to know what is happening around the
world. Mass media has been influencing the social, cultural, economic and
religious aspects of the society. The lifestyle of the people is changing
because of mass media and globalisation.

The press is not the most important means of
communication in a country like India, because of its large illiterate
population. Even in this 20th century, there are villages in India
where people are not educated, where basic education is still not available. Yet
because of the existing power structure, which is dominated by the educated
people, the written records carry much value. Hence its capability to influence
the attitudes of both ordinary readers and policy makers are inevitable on
large scale. The patriarchal value system itself reveals the truth and
oppression of women by class, caste and gender. Daily soap operas, serials and
other film based fictions entertainment make up the bulk of popular television
fare. But, nowadays, very few people prefer watching television.

First most women in India are neither affluent,
influential nor in position of authority and dominance. The invisibility and
inaudibility of women in society is thus further perpetuated and enhanced by
the media. A number of serious women’s issues are not overtly violent or
dramatic although often involving large numbers. The affected persons are not
necessarily part of a readily identifiable group or concentrated in a
particular geographical area. Further many aspects of women’s oppression are
not so common place and widely accepted that they are not considered
sufficiently extra ordinary to merit coverage. Very few news of women issues
are reported by the media.

While women are allowed more leniency than men when
displaying emotion permitting men the same leniency may prove beneficial to
equalizing gender role perceptions and toning down masculinity on television.
Advertising provides a model for young women, indicating that if they do
certain things or act certain ways, they will be sexually attractive and these
can create negative impact on people; however, by advertising thinness and
perfection so frequently, viewers believe that with enough effort and
self-sacrifice, they can achieve this unattainable goal.