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The perception of producing insufficient milk (Cherop,

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       The Background to the Study

Exclusive
breastfeeding is defined as the act or practice of feeding the baby solely on
breast milk during the first six months after birth, no water, glucose juice or
other juice beside breast milk, this is followed by the introduction of
supplementary feeds along with continuous breast milk, up to the second year of
life World Health Organization (WHO), 2011. It should be noted that naturally,
scientifically and physically, breast milk provides the needed nutrition for
the baby to grow, and protects infants against some childhood killer diseases
such as gastrointestinal infection, pneumonia and otitis media. It also
enhances the reproductive health of the mother, proper child spacing, and rapid
return of a mother to her previous weight and reduce the risk of having type 2
diabetes (WHO, 2011). Breast feeding is a convenient, hygienic and
cost-effective practicethat improves the health of the babies. (Oche, Umar and
Ahmed, 2011). Breast milk contains antibodies and important nutrients require
for the improvement of health and adequate development of the new born (Hajeeboy,
Nguyen, Mannava and Mia (2014). For some years now, there have been an
increasing interest in the encouragement of exclusive breastfeeding as the best
feeding method for infants, this, to a significant extent has been inspired by
scientific proofs on the significance of exclusive breast feeding in the
reduction of infant morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization
(WHO) recommends that mothers should exclusively breastfeed the child for the
first six months to attain best growth, development and general well being of
the child. Furthermore, nutritious complementary foods and continue
breastfeeding should be given to the child of at least two years of age (WHO,
2011).

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Irrespective
of the myriad benefits of breast milk, and WHO’s recommendations on
breastfeeding, some mothers find it difficult to practice exclusive
breastfeeding due to factors such as breast related problems, a mother’s
perception of producing insufficient milk (Cherop, Keverange-Ettyang and
Mbagaya, 2009), other factors include societal barriers like work, inadequate
maternity leave, inadequate breastfeeding knowledge, lack of family support and
encouragement from health care professionals (Thurman and Allen,
2009).Globally, only 45% of infants less than six months of age are breastfed
exclusively, despite the reported benefits of breastfeeding (United Nation
Children Education Fund, 2016).  A study
conducted by the United States Centre for Disease Control (CDC), the published
result in the journal of pediatrics as at 2016, indicates that only one in 200
British women (0.5%) engages in breastfeeding a year after giving birth. The
figure is 23% in Germany and 27% in the United States.

Recent analysis by
CaiWardlaw and Brown (2010) on the global prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding
across 140 countries revealed an increase in the developing world from 33% in
1995 to 39% in 2010 among infants aged 0-5months. Increase in West and Central
Africa was more than twofold, that is from 12% in1995 to 28% in 2010. There
have also been considerable progress from 35% in 1995 to 47 % 

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