The ARP functions under the network layer

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The ARP functions under the network layer protocol (OSI model which is
on layer 3) and is between the OSI
network and OSI data link layer (layer 2
OSI model). ARP is used to map an IP network address towards the systems hardware
addresses utilized by a data link protocol. This protocol is used by the
internet protocol RFC826, specifically IPv4. A computer user or host wanting to
gather a physical address broadcast a ARP request onto the network, then the
host on the network that holds that IP address answers with its physical
hardware address. An alternative function utilizing ARP is called reverse ARP.
In this case where the host wants to determine its IP address sends or
broadcast is physicals address and RARP server replies with the host IP
address.IPv6 is similarly known as IPng (internet
protocol succeeding generation) utilized in Layer 3 of the OSI model where the
logical address, path determination and route packets exist. This is the newest version of what we know as the internet
protocol and it is used as a replacement of IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). IPv6 was design for the future as the
internet grows steadily as in numbers of users and the amount of data traffic
transmitted. The biggest improvement over IPv4 is the IP addresses lengthen
from 32 bits to 128 bits. It provides features as allowing the host to send
fragments packets but not routers, requires IPsec support, does not include
checksum in the header, and offers simpler auto configuration of addresses. An open standard to help and ensure private and secure communications
over the internet. Secures communications via the use of cryptography secure
services and supports network data integrity, data confidentiality, data origin
authentication and replay protection. The IPSec is integrated at the internet
layer (OSI model layer 3) and since
it provides security for almost all protocols, there is no need configure
separate securities for each application that uses TCP/IP. Provides security
against attacks from unknown or untrusted computers, data theft, user
credential theft and helps to administrate controls of servers.Approved in 2006, BGP-4, the existing version of BGP, supports both IPv6
and classless interdomain routing (CIDR), which permits the continued viability
of IPv4. Use of the CIDR is a method to have additional addresses within the
network than with the current IP address assignment scheme. BGP is currently in
version 4 and is a protocol that manages how data and packets are routed
throughout the internet. It offers stability that guarantees routers can
quickly adapt and change connection if one internet path breaks. BGP makes
decisions based on network policies configured by a network admin. Each BGP has
a standard router table used to direct information in transit. BGP is based on
TCP/IP and uses the client’s server topology to communicate routing
information. BGP is a layer 4 protocol that is the transport layer on the OSI
model. Is an alternative method of communication protocol to Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP). UDP in on layer 4 which is the transport layer on the
OSI model and is used primarily to stablish low latency and the loss of
tolerating connections between applications on the internet. Both UDP and TCP
run on the very top of the internet protocols. We know it and referrer it as
UDP/IP and TCP/IP, both protocols send small packets of data known as
datagrams. UDP have two services that provides a port number- to distinguish
different user request. Also, a checksum to verify the data has arrived intact.
We use UDP when we need an application to run with low latency such as online
video games, video chatting and voice transmissions.POP3 is the most up-to-date version of receiving e-mail. Is in the
application layer of the OSI model, which is layer 7. Is a client and server
protocol in which when receiving email is held by your internet server. When
checking your mail box, you are downloading the e-mail using POP3. With POP3 is
not possible to synchronize emails between difference devices. it might not be
a suitable used for companies that requires client to be able to login from
many different devices. A different protocol is Internet Message Access
Protocol (IMAP). IMAP offers the user extra capabilities for recollecting
e-mail on the server and for organizing it in folders on the server. IMAP can
be assumed of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP deal
with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the
Internet. You send e-mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on your recipient’s
behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP.Is the secure version of HTTP, is the protocol which the user is sending
data between browser and the website you are connected to. Strictly speaking is
in the session layer of the OSI model, which is layer 5. The ‘S’ at the end is
for secure which means is that all communication is encrypted and highly
protected. This is what allows user to be able to put their Credit card information
and shop online more secure and less vulnerable. is a client and server protocol that automatically provides an IP host
with its IP address and other configurations such as subnets mask and default
gateway. Every device used on the network specifically using TCP/IP must have a
unique IP address to access it and use its resources. Without a DHCP, new
computers that are moved from one to another subnet must be configured
manually. Using DHCP this process is entirely automated and managed with
servers that contains a pool of IP addresses. 
A DHCP enable client IP’s are automatically assigned and released when
no longer in used. The benefits of DHCP is that minimizes configurations errors
caused by manually assigning IP addresses and the ability to centralized
automated TCP/IP configurations. Is in the application layer of the OSI model,
which is layer 7.A protocol used for the necessity to data link over serial used very
early in the progress of TCP/IP. Is a method of sending IP datagrams throughout
serial connections joining computers to one another. SLIP never made it to
internet standards since it had no support for error detection, error
compression, system authentication and no standard way to define IP addressing
between two host. SLIP functions in the data link layer of the OSI model, which
is layer 2.An error reporting protocol that devices such as routers send back error
messages to the source of the IP address when network problems are developed or
occur. While ICMP is not use by end-user applications, it is widely use by
Systems Admins to troubleshoot connections and as diagnostic utilizes such as
pinging or tracerouting. ICMP has been used to execute Dos attacks and known as
ping of death, where sending IP packet larger than what’s allow by the IP
protocol. Doing this form of attack will prevent the use from using the
internet properly since the IP address is being overloaded by incoming packets.
Located in the layer 3 of the OSI model, which is network layer.


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