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Table 2 gene and induce apoptosis. Ehrlich

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Table 1: represents
anticancer plants with their mechanism of action and cell lines used for    studies.

S.No

Plant

Plant
part

Mode
of action

Cell
lines

1

Acorus
calamus
(sweet flag,
calamus, sweet cane, sweet grass)

Rhizome
 

Phytochemicals
extracted from plant extracts  caused
death in MCF 7 Cell

Human breast
cancer cell line (MCF 7)
 

2

Sophora
interrupta
(Edwaria madarasapatna)

Whole plant

Phytochemicals of
the plant formed 6 hydrogen bonds with Arg 202,Gln 207,Gly 227,Gly 229,Thr
231,Ala 232 human DEAD box and RNA helicase

Dalton’s lymphoma
ascites(MCF7 and PC 3 Cell lines)

3

Solanum
trilobatum
(Thai night shade)

Whole plant

Plant extracts
contain phenolic compounds. These compounds bind with BCL 2 gene and induce
apoptosis.

Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma cells

4

Catharanthus
roseus          (Vinca rosea)

Leaf,
seed, stem

Extracts contain
vincristine, vinblastine, and vindesine alkaloid group of compounds. These
disrupt mitotic spindle assembly through interaction with tubulin.

Hep2 cell
lines(lung cancer)

5

Eclipta
alba  (False daisy)

Roots, seeds, oil

Produce secondary
metabolites like polypeptide, polyacetylenes, flavanoids, and triterpenes.
Inhibit cell proliferation and down regulate expression level of matrix
metalloproteases (MMP 2and MMP 9)

C6 glioma,A498,
human lung
epithelial adenocarcinoma cell lines HLC 827

6

Juniperus
communalis
(Dwarf
juniper)            

 Fruit

Produces
diapterene, isocupressic acid, aryltetralin lignin deoxypodophyllotoxin.These
are the potent inducers of caspase dependent programmed cell death in
malignant and breast cancer cells.

MB 231 breast
cancer cell lines

7

Myrica cerifera
(Bayberry)

Leaf, stem, seed

The
diarylhepatanoid named rubanol I has shown to exhibit cytotoxicity against
Lun 06, Neu 04, Brc 04.

Lun 06,Neu 04,Brc
04, A549, human colon adenocarcinoma DCD 1

8

 Withania somnifera
(Indian ginseng)

Fruits and
flowers

Withaferin A
binds to tubulin and interferes with mitotic spindle formation thereby
regulates cell cycle.

PC 3,DU 145,HCT
15,A549,IMR 32 cell lines

9

Curcuma longa
(Turmeric)

Rhizome

Curcumin
suppresses the activation of NF-Kb regulated genes involved in tumorigenesis
including TNF, COX 2, Cyclin D, MMP 9 and interleukins. Also involved in cell
cycle control and stimulates apoptosis. In addition to that Curcumin is a
modulator of autophagy and suppresses a variety of growth factors such as
VEGF, COX 2, MMP and ICAMs.   

MCF 7,Hep 2,
U937(human
monocytic leukemia cell line),
Molt 4(human
lymphoblastic cell line)

 

 
10

 
Taxus
brevifolia
(Pacific yew,
western yew)

 
Dried
leaves, bark, root

 
Taxol inhibits
cell proliferation by stabilizing the microtubules at G2-M phase of cell
cycle resulting in which the depolymerization of microtubules to soluble
tubulin is blocked. Effective in treating epithelial ovarian cell cancer,
lung cancer and colon cancer.

 
MX 1mammarycell
line models,
LX 1 lung and CX
1 colon cell line models were used.

11

Tinospora
cardifolia
(Guduchi)

Root, stem

It induces
proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in
tumor bearing host. It also activated tumor-associated macrophages-derived
dendritic cells. Stimulates macrophage functions like phagocytosis,
antigen-presenting ability and secretion of IL-1, TNF. Dichloromethane
extracts showed cytotoxic effects.

Erlich’s ascites
carcinoma cells, melanoma cells, HeLa cells.
 

12

Zingiber
officinalis
(Ginger)

Rhizome

Capsaicin, a
phytochemical compound extracted from the plant affects the metabolism of
carcinogens. It also possesses apoptotic activity. Plant extracts repressed
the growth of HeLa, ovarian carcinoma, mammary, adenocarcinoma cells.

CCA cell
line(CL-6),
HepG2(hepatocarcinoma),HRE
(normal human
renal epithelium cell lines)

13

Crocus
sativus
(saffron)

Stigma

The plant extract
contains alpha-crocetin, safranal, picrocrocetin, beta carotene. The extract
caused stimulation of apoptosis-caspase dependent pathway. Crocetin inhibited
cell proliferation and also arrested cell cycle progression in case of
prostate cancer.
 

EAC, DLA
(Dalton’s lymphoma ascites), S-180, Hep G2 cell lines.

 
14

 
Aloe
barbadensis
(Aloe Vera, medicinal aloe)

 
Leaves

 
Aloe-emodin, the
active component of aloe vera along with calligonum comosum extract altered
gene and protein expressions of P53 and Bcl 2. Also induced G2/M
arrest and apoptosis.

 
Hepatocellular
carcinoma cells (HepG2), human bladder(T24)

15

Terminalia
 chebula (yellow or chebulic myrobalan)

Fruit

The plant extract
contains flavanoids, tannins, ellagic acid. Flavanoids like Quercetin, rutin
possess anti mutagenic and anti tumor properties.

Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma cell lines.

16

Moringa
oleifera
(Moringa,
Drumstick tree)

Leaves

Leaves contain
high amounts of polyphenols and flavanoids. Major polyphenols are gallic
acid, Quercetin and kaempferol. The extract was
found to contain
anti oxidant, cytotoxic and anti proliferative activity.

Colorectal
adenocarcinoma,HepG2,
CaCo-2, MCF-7,
Hepa-CIC7 and fibroblast cell lines.

17

Cassia
Fistula
(Golden shower, pudding pipe
tree)

Pulp and
seeds

Ethyl acetate
extract of pulp and seeds contained anti cancer compounds like 2(3H)
furanone, rhein, and thymoland oleic acid. These compounds mediated the up
regulation of p53 and Bax genes and down regulation of Bcl-2 gene
expression. It enhanced the enzyme activities of caspase-3 and 9.

 MCF-7,human cervical cancer cell
lines(SiHa), prostate cancer cell lines(PC-3)

18

Annona
atemoya
(atemoya, chirimorinon)

Leaves and seeds

The Ethanolic
extract of plant material has shown anti angiogenic property. Angiogenesis
promotes the growth of tumor cells.

Human umbilical
endothelial cells, NCI-H460 (Non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line)

19

Andrographis
paniculata
(creat,
kariyat,  Indian Echinacea)

leaves

Andrographolide,
a compound extracted from the plant induced apoptosis. It also enhanced the
expression of P53, bax& caspase3 genes. Decreased the bcl2
gene expression thereby controlling the tumor growth.

HeLa,
colon(HT-29)cell lines,
MCF 7, human
peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs).

20

Phyllanthus
amarus
(Gale of wind)

Whole plant

The phyllanthus
aqueous extract contained polyphenols. These include gallic acid, gallolyl
glucopyronoside, rutin, Quercetin, corilagen, geranin. Gallic acid&
Quercetin inhibited G1phase of cell cycle.

A549, MCF7 (human
breast cancer cell lines), NL20 (human bronchus epithelium), human breast
epithelium (184B5).

21

Bacopa
monnieri
 (Brahmi)

Whole plant

The anticancer
activity of the plant extract might be due to the presence of saponins and
flavonoid content. Of all the cell lines tested, the extract has shown high
efficiency on human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).
 

Cervix (ME 180,
SiHa), leukemia (HL60, K562), Breast (MCF 7, MDA MB468), Prostate, colon,
lung (A549), HEPG2 and oral (AW13516).

22

Vitex
trifolia
(simple leaf
chaste tree)

leaf

Methanol and
petroleum ether extracts of leaf was cytotoxic to the MCF 7 cells and
resulted in cell death.

MCF7 and Vero
cell lines.

23

Alocasia
cucullata
(Chinese Taro)

Tuber

The extract had
apoptotic and cytotoxic properties and also interfered with the expression of
Rb, caspase 3, Bax, cyclin D1 and Bcl2 genes.

MGC 803(Gastric
cell line), K 562(myelogenous leukemia cells), HeLa (cervical cancer cells),
MDA-MB 435(breast cancer cell lines.)

24

Erythrina
variegata
  (LINN)
(Indian coral
tree, tiger claw)

Leaves, roots,
stem bark

The ethyl acetate
fraction of stem bark extract contained four different compounds which belong
to flavanoids and alkaloids and are found to possess properties of inhibiting
cell proliferation, protease inhibitors and cytotoxicity.  Leaves extract of the plant has shown
efficiency against breast cancer cell line.

HeLa (human
cervical cancer), DLA, T47D (breast cancer), NIH3T3 (Normal mouse embryonic
fibroblast) cell lines.

25

Plumbago
zeylanica
(Chitrak,
Plumbago)

Leaves

Different
phytochemicals had been extracted from the plant namely-beta sitosterol,
beta-sitosteryl-3-beta-glucopyranoside-61-opalmitate, lupenone,
plumbagin, trilinolein. Plumbagin was found to possess apoptotic G2/M phase
cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation activities.

MCF7, APL cell
line, NB4 cells, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines.

26

Abrus
precatorius
(Crab’s eye,
Rosary pea)

Seeds

The petroleum
ether extract of the plant contained many phytochemicals-flavanoids,
alkaloids, tannins, phenolic, saponin and triterpenoid groups. These
flavanoids inhibited cell proliferation thereby the growth of tumor is
controlled.

Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma cell lines

27

Adhatoda
vasica
(Malabar nut
tree)

Leaves
 

Vasicine, an
alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica showed cytotoxic
activities and thus acted as a potent anticancer agent.

A549 (Lung
adenocarcinoma) cell line.

28

Alanginum
salvifolium
(Ankolah, Sage leaved
alangium)

Flowers, bark,
roots, fruits

The crude extract
of the flowers had flavanoids, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and tannins.
Quercetin and kaempferol, main flavanoids present in the plant extract has
shown antimalignant activity. In addition to antitumor effect, it also showed
hematopoietic protecting activity.

Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma cell lines

29

Phaleria
macrocarpa
(God’s crown)

Seeds

The seed extract
of the plant contain high amounts of phenolic and flavanoid compounds. These phytochemicals
might be responsible to induce cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines.

MCF7,
HT29,MDA-MB231, SKOV-3, MRC-5(normal human fibroblast lung) cell lines

30

Rubia
cordifolia
(Indian madder)

Root
 

The
phytochemicals present in the root extract of the plant – epoxy mollugin,
furomollugin, ruberythric acid, 2-carbomethoxy-2, 3-epoxy-3-prenyl-1,
4-napthoquinone, alizarin, soranjidol exhibited cytotoxic activities and also
inhibited DNA topoisomerase I activities. Besides this, the extract
did not affect normal healthy cell growth.

HepG2 (human
hepatocellular carcinoma), HT29, MCF7.

31

Camptotheca
acuminata
(Happy tree, cancer tree, tree
of joy)

Fruits,
leaves

Camptothecin, an
alkaloid isolated from the extract blocked the action of topoisomerase I and
it also caused a nick in the double strand of DNA which finally resulted in
apoptosis thereby inhibiting the cell proliferation.

Human endometrial
carcinoma
Cell line
(HEC-1A), HEC-1B, KLE.

32

Azadirachta
indica
(Neem)

Leaves

The expression of
cyclin D, a cell cycle regulator is high in human cancers (breast, cervical)
but, when MCF-7 cells were treated with ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, the expression of
cyclin D was down regulated. Bax, an apoptotic gene, causes the cell to
undergo apoptosis. In case of untreated MCF7 cells the Bax gene
expression is low. But, when the cells are treated with leaf extract, the Bax
gene expression increased in a time dependent manner. The extract did not
interfere with the viability of normal lymphocytes.

MCF7, HeLa cell
lines.

33

Beta
vulgaris
(common beet,
sugar beet)

Roots
 

The root extract
of beta vulgaris possess different phytochemicals such as flavonoids,
polyphenols, vitamins, betalains, betaxanthins, and minerals. The presence of
folic acid in higher quantities also might be a reason for antiproliferative
property.  These Phytochemicals
suppressed the cell growth and induced cell death.

MCF-7.

34

Emblica
officinalis
(Indian
gooseberry)

Fruit
 

The fruit extract
of Emblica officinalis contains 18
phytochemical compounds that are responsible in curing a disease.
Polyphenols, alkaloids and flavonoids are reported to be present in the fruit
extract. Polyphenols might be responsible for the suppression of DNA
topoisomerase I and also induced apoptosis. In addition to the cytotoxic
properties, the plant extract had immunomodulatory effect by intensifying
natural killer cell activity.

MCF 7, K 562,
Erythroleukemic HEL cell lines.
 

35

Asparagus
racemosa
(Shatavari)

Roots

Many
phytochemicals which are known to possess anticancer activity were isolated
from the root extract. Some of them include rutin, Quercetin, shatavaroside
A, shatavaroside B, Shatavari IV. These Phytoconstituents induced cytotoxic
effects on tumor cells.

MCF-7, HT-29,
A-498, MDA-MB-231.

36

Fagonia
cretica
(AjabhakshyaAnanto)

Flower
 

The aqueous
extract of the plant induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by
the regulation of   P53 gene
expression.

MCF-7, MDA-MB-231
 

37

Solanum
nigrum
(Black night
shade, Black- berry night shade) 

Leaves, fruit

Studies have
shown that eight active compounds were extracted from the plant. Out of which
a compound called trilinolein showed anticancer activity. It has exhibited
the properties of inducing apoptosis and growth inhibition. Regulated Bcl-2
family and caspase-3 genes.

Hep G2, HT-29,
HCT-119, MCF-7, HeLa-27, U1424

38

Bauhinia
variegate
( kachnar, orchid
tree)

leaves

The bioactive
constituents isolated from the plant has shown cell cycle arrest and also
induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells.

COLO
320 DM (human colon cancer cell line).

39

Podophyllum
hexandrum
(Indian
Podophyllum)

Root, rhizome

 The derivatives of podophyllotoxin,
(etoposide and teniposide) have shown their anticancerous properties by
blocking the metaphase of mitosis, inhibiting the proliferation of
microtubules. VP-16 etoposide and VM-26 teniposide are being widely used in
chemotherapeutic drugs.

HL-60,
SMMC-7721, A549, MCF7, SW480, HeLa,

40

Prosopis
cineraria
(khejri tree)

Leaves

The
Phytoconstituents extracted from the plant material has shown its apoptotic
effects on cancer cell lines. The extract did not induce toxicity on normal
cells. The flavonoid compound named- Quercetin-3? Undecyloxy-3-galloyl
trimethyl ether had shown cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines

MCF-7,
HeLa

41

Euphorbia
hirta
(Garden spurge,
hairy spurge, asthma plant)

Leaves

The compound 2,3 dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-Pyran-4-one
(DDMP) reported from the ethanolic extract of the plant induced apoptosis by
suppressing anti apoptotic genes and had contributed a major part in curing
cancer.

HL-60,
Hep 2, EAC,

42

Annona
muricata
(Graviola,
Prickly custard apple)

Leaves, twigs and
roots

The extracts of
the plant resulted in  cell cycle
arrest at G0/ G1 phase by up regulating the expression of p21and
it is also responsible for disrupting the membrane of mitochondria thereby
inhibiting cell proliferation.

MCF-7,
MDA-MB-231, 4T-1, HL-60.

43

Cannabis
sativa
(Marijuana, Hemp,
Gallow grass)

Leaves

Cannabinoids, the
bioactive constituents isolated from the leaf extract of the plant induced
apoptosis.

HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 cell lines

44

Centella
asiatica
(Indian
pennywort, Coinwort)

Leaves

The terpenes
(Asiatic acid), phenols and flavanoids present in the extract would be
responsible for causing
apoptosis.

B6F10,
MDA-MB-231.

45

Saussrea
lappa
(Costus)

Roots

Costunolide along
with other terpenoids group of compounds isolated from the plant down
regulated CDK-2 kinase activity which led to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase
and resulted in apoptosis.

HL-60,
KB (human oral cancer cells), A549, MCF7, MBA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL 2,
HCT15.

46

Nigella
sativa
(Black cumin)

Seeds

The
Phytoconstituents of the plant material has shown anti metastasis, apoptotic,
anti oxidant and anti proliferative properties by enhancing NK cytotoxic
activity and also by regulating P53, caspase activities.

HepG2,
MCF-7, Vero, P815, MOLT-4

47

Picrorhiza
kurroa
( Kutki)

Rhizome

The hydro
alcoholic extracts of the plant contained cucurbitacins B and E, Picrosides
1&2, betulinic acid and apocynin. These bioactive compounds would be
responsible for exhibiting anticancerous properties.

MCF-7,
SiHa, HeLa, MDA-MB-231.

48

Ageratum conyzoides
(chick
weed, Goat weed, White weed)

Leaf, stem,
flower and whole plant

The flavonoids
reported from the plant exhibited anticancerous activity.

Jurkat,
LNCap, MCF-7, PNT2

49

Papaver
somniferum
(opium poppy)

Stem,
capsule,  root and leaf

The alkaloids
isolated from the plant material exhibited anticancerous properties.
Noscapine, codeinone, morphine, papaverine are responsible for its anticancer
activity.

HT
29, HeLa, C6 cells

50

Alstonia
scholaris
(Devil tree, blackboard
tree, ditabark, milk wood- pine, white cheesewood)

Bark
 

Alcoholic extract
of the plant possessed many classes of secondary metabolites like alkaloids,
terpenoids, lignans, and flavonoids. The alkaloids -Echitamine chloride, and
alstonine has shown significant anticancer activity.

Human
cervix cancer cell line(ME180, SiHa), Human leukemia cell lines( HL60, K562),
Human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, Ovkar-3)

51

Carthamus
tinctorius
( Safflower)

Seeds

Several phenolic
and flavanoid compounds were reported from the extract such as
epigallocatechin, serotonin derivatives, serotonin glycosides, and lignin.
Flavanoid compounds like kaempferol, rutin hydrate, luteolin, baringin and
Quercetin hydrate. The presence of these compounds might be responsible for
inhibiting cell proliferation by reducing the level of cyclin D1.

Human
colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT 116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29), MDA-MB-231,
MCF-7.

52

Murrayya
koenigii
( Curry leaf)

Leaves

Studies on the
plant have reported that the leaf extract has higher amounts of phenol and
flavonoid contents (Gallic acid, Myricetin, Epicatechin, Quercetin).
Mahenine, an alkaloid isolated from the leaf inhibited cell cycle progression
by suppressing cell survival factors.

HT-29,
MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HL-60

53

Momocardia

charantia
(Bitter gourd)

Seeds and aerial
parts

Cucurbitane, a
triterpenoid  and alpha- eleostearic
acid isolated from the plant extract blocked the cell transition from G2 to M
Phase of cell cycle, induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines,
leukemia and colon cancer cell lines. ?- Eleostearic acid and its derivatives
had shown a strong marked inhibition of growth on HL-60 leukemia and HT-29
Colon cancer cell lines.

HCT-116,
Hep G2, MCF-7, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, HL-60, HT-29.

54

Triticum
aestivum
 (Wheat grass)

Wheat grain

The
dichloromethane fraction of the plant extract inhibited the growth of cancer
cell by inducing alterations in cellular morphology thereby leading to cell
cycle arrest and apoptosis. Besides this it controlled the expression of
mitochondrial apoptosis-linked proteins and caused caspase-dependent cell
death.

HeLa,
Hep-2

55

Allium
sativum
(Garlic)

Bulb
 

Allyl sulfides
and its derivatives have induced G2/M check point arrest by regulating the
expression of different types of proteins involved in transition of phases
and ultimately led to apoptosis.

MCF-7,
A549,PA-1

56

Camellia
sinensis
(Green tea)

Leaves

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate
(EGCG), a polyphenol isolated from the plant inhibited the growth of cancer
cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest. Along with EGCG, other flavonoids-
rutin and Quercetin also possess anticarcinogenicity. 

HEY,
OVCA, HT-29,HCA-7