SIX SIGMA IMPLEMENTATION AT WIPRO LTD.
Six Sigma is a method used for reducing
variation in manufacturing, service or other business processes. The projects measure
the cost benefit of improving processes that are producing substandard products
or services. It is a statistical method which involves varied business
driven approach and the ability to improve processes, reduce costs and increase
the profits. This improvement tool is extensively utilized in manufacturing,
industrial and services industry.
It is a set of techniques and
tools used for process improvement. It was presented by engineer Bill
Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it
vital to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995.
It seeks to improve the quality of the output of a process by
identification and elimination of the causes of defect. Also, it minimizes the variability in manufacturing and business
processes. It uses a set of quality management methods and creates a
special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in
these methods. Every Six Sigma project carried out in an organization follows a
definite sequence of step. They have specific value targets, such as: reduce
process cycle time, reduce wastage, reduce costs, increase customer loyalty,
and increase profits.
The term Six Sigma devised from the terms
associated with statistical modelling of manufacturing processes. The development
of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating
which shows the yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. Motorola
set an objective of “six sigma” for the majority of its manufacturing
operations, and this objective became a by-word for the management and
engineering practices used to accomplish it.
The objective of each effective
Six Sigma project is to produce statistically significant improvements in a
process. Over time, multiple Six Sigma projects produce virtually defect-free
performance. The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma methodology
is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process
improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six
Sigma improvement projects. This is accomplished through the use of two Six
Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure,
Analyze, Improve, Control) process is an improvement system for existing
processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement.
The Six Sigma DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design,
Verify) process is an improvement system used to develop new processes or
products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current
process requires more than just incremental improvement. Both Six Sigma
processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six Sigma Black Belts, and
are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts.
Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful
Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top
management. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma
implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom
and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements by
transcending departmental barriers and overcoming inherent resistance to
responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an
integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management.
Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts.
Black Belts, identified by Champions, act as in-house
coaches on Six Sigma. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They
assist Champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apart from
statistical tasks, they spend their time on ensuring consistent
application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments.
Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six
Sigma methodology to specific projects. They devote 100% of their valued
time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution and
special leadership with special tasks, whereas Champions and Master Black
Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.
Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma
implementation along with their other job responsibilities, operating
under the guidance of Black Belts.
ABOUT WIPRO LTD.
Wipro Ltd. is a leading
global information technology, consulting and business process services
company. They harness the power of cognitive computing, hyper-automation,
robotics, cloud, analytics and emerging technologies to help their clients adapt
to the digital world and make them successful. A company recognized globally
for its comprehensive portfolio of services, strong commitment to
sustainability and good corporate citizenship, they have over 160,000 dedicated
employees serving clients across six continents. Together, they discover ideas
and connect the dots to build a better and a bold new future.
Wipro Limited (Western India Palm Refined Oils Limited or
more recently, Western India Products Limited) is an Indian
Information Technology Services corporation headquartered in Bengaluru,
In 2013, Wipro demerged its non-IT businesses into
separate companies to bring in more focus on independent businesses.
The company was incorporated on 29 December 1945 in
Amalner, Maharashtra by Mohamed Premji as ‘Western India Vegetable Products
Limited’, later abbreviated to ‘Wipro’. It was initially set up as a manufacturer
of vegetable and refined oils in Amalner, Maharashtra, India
under the trade names of Kisan, Sunflower, and Camel.
Why Wipro undertook Six Sigma?
the data transfer time.
interpretation due to LAN/WAN downtime.
availability of the switch for the other administrative tasks during the
Six Sigma mean at Wipro?
have products and services meet global benchmark.
robust processes within the organisation.
meet & exceed costumer expectation.
quality a culture within.
CHALLENGES FACED DURING IMPLEMENTATION
OF SIX SIGMA PROGRAM:
the culture: Restructuring the organization culture,
infrastructure, training and confidence building took time.
Selection: Choosing a suitable project in the first year was a
challenge. Wipro decided to select those projects which had higher chances
of success and targeted to complete this project in a short time span.
Finding the right people and training those people presented a tough job
at Wipro. Training was rolled out in 5 phases: Defining, measuring,
analyzing, improving and controlling the process and lastly increasing
Wipro implemented the Six Sigma Program for different service
USED BY WIPRO FOR IMPLEMENTING SIX SIGMA
For Developing New Processes:
SIX SIGMA SOFTWARE (DSSS METHODOLOGY): For software development that
ensures defect free delivery and lower customer cost of application
SIX SIGMA PROCESS AND PRODUCT (DSSP METHODOLOGY): For designing new
products and processes.
FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND MANUFACTURABILITY (DCAM METHOD)
For Improving Existing Processes:
QUALITY USING SIX SIGMA (TQSS): For defect reduction in transactional
For process improvement in non-transactional process.
FUNCTIONAL PROCESS (CFP METHODOLOGY)
The process followed for the implementation of the above
methodologies is explained below:
the culture: Implementation of Six Sigma required
support from high level managers. For this the company restructured the
organisation and provided infrastructure, training and confidence in the
of the project: For the selection of the right project the
field data was collected, process map was developed and importance of the
project was judged from the eyes of the customers.
were identified on the basis of short term and long term requirements. The
project selected was a crucial factor in determining the resources
developed a team of experts for reviewing the projects. It was done to see
the timeliness of the project completion, targeting of gaps, weak areas
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