Relative tail length, description Relative head size, description Head shape Any other observationsWhy are sperm small and mobile and why are eggs large and immobile?In order for there to be life, two gametes are needed. The sperm and egg have distinctive characteristic. The egg cell is the largest cell in the female human body, it is seen by the naked eye. the female reproductive cell, the egg is approximately 30 times the width of a sperm cell (Bie, G van der 2001). The egg has to be large in order to to contain all of the organelles enclosed in the cytoplasm to provide a viable offspring, in addition to the organelles held within the cell, the egg also contain half the number of chromosomes(Bie, G van der 2001). In addition to being large, the female reproductive cell is also immobile. This is due to the fact that the immobility aids the chance of fertilization and the survival of the maternal DNA (Levitan 2006). Sperm is the other gamete needed to produce an offspring. Unlike the egg, sperm is microscopic and mobile. Sperm is produced after a male reaches puberty. The sperm cell is small and mobile due to competition. The sperm cell is made in the epididymis and has to travel through. The sperm is internally passive and externally mobile. The sperm cell contains only half of the numbers of chromosomes, and mitochondria used to provide energy to swim forward. In conclusion the sperm is small and mobile in order to beat the competition (Alberts et al. 2002)2. Why do males produce so many sperm, and females produce so few eggs?Female are born with all their eggs already present in their ovaries as a female matures and develops, one egg will move to the fallopian tubes to get fertilized (Saupe 2004). The reason why there is an abundant amount of sperm cell produced is due to the fact that only approximately 30-70 percent of the sperm cells are motile, and move with the purpose of fertilize (Leahy, MacQueen 2015). Sperm cells can have various abnormalities such as; having two heads, no heads, a bent tail, or no tail at all (Braun 1998). In the end the sperm cells are competing to fertilize the egg, as they swim through the female they are faced with many obstacles such as hitting the cervix, following the wrong channel (Levitan 2006). In conclusion males produce an abundant amount of sperm because most of the sperm cells will die off before making it close to the egg. Whatever sperm cell reaches the egg then has to fight its way to fertilize the egg. 3. What are the functions of the various parts of the sperm (tail, mitochondria, head and acrosome)? The sperm cell just like every other cells have parts that do specific jobs to ensure the survival of the cell. The sperm cell is broken down into three parts, the head, midpiece, and the tail (Morris et al. 2016). The head of the sperm cell contains cytoplasm, and a nucleus which holds half of the genetic information (23 chromosomes). The acrosome is 40-70% of the total sperm head. The acrosome contains the enzyme that allows the sperm to destroy the outer layers of a egg cell, allowing the sperm cell an easy entrance for fertilization (Morris et al. 2016). In many cases, some sperm cells will release proteins to bind the sperm to the egg, to help it fertilize the egg. In the midpiece of sperm cell there is a mitochondria which provides energy to the sperm’s flagellum to help it propel forward. Lastly the tail part of the sperm cell is also known as the flagella (Morris et al. 2016). The flagella is a vital part of the sperm cell, it used to impele the sperm through the aqueous solution towards the egg. Sperm cells can have many abnormalities in their tails, which can cause the sperm cell to die off (Alberts et al. 2002).4. What are the roles of the follicle cells in the egg, and of the relatively large amount of cytoplasm in the egg?The ovum is a key part of producing a viable offspring. The follicle cells role is to protect and nourish the egg so it can be released and get fertilized. After the female reaches puberty every month a follice cell enlarges and then becomes the corpus luteum. (Saupe 2004). The cytoplasm contains organelles needed for the egg’s development. There has to be a fair amount of cytoplasm in the egg due to the fact that the cytoplasm divides the cells during meiosis. (Alberts et al. 2002)
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