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Rainfall-Runoff not uniform and also it is

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Rainfall-Runoff
Modelling Using HEC-HMS for a Watershed, Karnataka, India

 

Chetan M Benakannanavar1,
Chandrashekarayya G H2

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Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, NNRESGI, Hyderabad,
Telangana, India1

Assistant Professor, Department of Water and Land Management, VTU,
Belagavi, Karnataka, India2

Email: [email protected], [email protected]

 

ABSTRACT: Stream flow is
the major resource for management of watershed and hence estimation of rainfall
runoff from the hydrological models are very useful now a days as they provide
better result without consuming more time. 
In the present case, rainfall runoff estimation was done for Hasur
Watershed of Malaprabha River basin in Karnataka, India by using the HEC-HMS
model along with the help of Arc GIS extension tools like Arc Hydro and HEC-Geo
HMS. For calculating runoff in HEC-HMS model, SCS Curve Number and SCS Unit
Hydrograph methods were used. The runoff results obtained after calibration was
found to be 2118.6m3/s which is veryequal to the observed value
2225.4m3/s and Nash-Sutcliffe value is to be 0.554. Hence, HEC-HMS
model is found useful to estimate the runoff for un-gauged basins.

 

KEY WORDS: HEC-HMS, SCS CN,
SCS Unit-hydrograph.

 

I. INTRODUCTION

 

Watershed
management is one of the processes for utilizing the natural resources
optimally for production with minimum hazard. Where soil, water and vegetation
are the main natural resources for the survival of living organisms on earth.
For managing watershed, one of the natural resource called rainfall-runoff
simulation was carried out. Tropical country like India, rainfall is not
uniform and also it is non seasonal over the country hence simulation of rainfall-runoff
is necessary to manage watersheds. Where there is no gauges for measuring the
runoff hydrological models are used as these models provide better result and
they do not need much time for computation. In this paper the main objective is
to simulation of runoff by using the semi-distributed hydrological model like
HEC-HMS 4.

 

II. RELATED WORK

a. Study Area:

The
study area is a Hasur watershed as shown in Fig: 1 (a), which lies in
Malaprabha sub-basin of Krishna basin. The Malaprabha River of Hasur Watershed
originates in Sahyadri Mountains at an altitude of 792.4m at Kanakumbi village
near to Jamboti village of Khanapur taluk of Belagavi district. The study area
lies in between at a longitude of 74 37 to 75 14(W-E) and at a latitude of 15
28 to 16 5 (S-N). The geographical area of study area is 3988.14km2 and it
includes part of Khanapur, Belagavi, Bailhongal, Saundatti and Ramdurg taluk’s
of Belagavi district and some part Badami taluk of Bagalkot district.

 

b. Methodology:

The
methodology of the study as shown in Fig: 1 (c), describes collection of
various data and their interpretation in the model at different stages. The
data required for the study are Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use and
Land Cover (LULC) map, Soil map, Rainfall data were collected. For the
extraction of terrain characteristics of the study area Environmental System
Research Institute (ESRI) developed Arc Hydro tool is used. For collecting
spatial information and conversion of physical characteristics into hydrological
parameters and developing input file for HEC-HMS of the study area, US Army
Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Hydrologic Engineering Centre (HEC) developed
HEC-Geo HMS tool is used. The input file of HEC-HMS developed in the HEC-Geo
HMS is opened in HEC-HMS for further process. The HEC-HMS model was developed
by the USACE for simulating the runoff generated in the watershed. HEC-HMS
model is used for simulation of runoff for wide range sub-basins and it
includes the loss methods, runoff transform methods and rainfall-runoff
simulation. Along with these methods it includes the main components required
to run the model they are Basin model component, Meteorological model
component, Control specification component and Input data component.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                (a)                                                                                           (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                (c)                                                                                                           (e)

Figure 1. (a)Map
of the Study Area, (b) DEM of the study area, (c) Flow chart of the
Methodology, (d) LULC map of the study area, (e) Soil map of the study area

 

The
input file of HEC-HMS developed in the HEC-Geo HMS is opened in HEC-HMS for
further process. The HEC-HMS model was developed by the USACE for simulating
the runoff generated in the watershed. HEC-HMS model is used for simulation of
runoff for wide range sub-basins and it includes the loss methods, runoff
transform methods and rainfall-runoff simulation. Along with these methods it
includes the main components required to run the model they are Basin model
component, Meteorological model component, Control specification component and Input
data component. 

 

c. Data Required for Model:

Digital
Elevation Model (DEM): The digital elevation model of 32m resolution for
study purpose is downloaded from Bhuvan website. The DEM is used for the
analysis of drainage by using Arc Hydro tool terrain processing methods like
fill sinks, flow direction, flow accumulation, stream definition, stream
segmentation, catchment grid delineation, catchment polygon processing,
drainage line processing, adjoint catchment processing and drainage point
processing. The DEM of the study area is as shown in Fig: 1 (b).

 

Land Use and
Land Cover (LULC) map: The Land sat image 30m resolution of the study area
is downloaded from the USGS Earth explorer. The LULC map of the study area is
prepared by using the Arc GIS 10.1. The below Fig: 1 (d), shows the LULC map of
study area.

 

Soil Map: The soil map of
the study area is obtained from Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).
According to study area it is clipped by using Arc GIS 10.1. The soil map of
the study area consists three types of soil clay soil, sandy soil and loam soil
belongs to two Hydrological Soil Groups (HSG), Group C and Group D. By
considering the LULC map, Soil map and Soil Conservation Services (SCS) classes
Curve Number (CN) value of the study area required for the HEC-HMS is derived.
The soil map of the study area as shown in Fig: 1(e).

 

Precipitation
data:
The daily precipitation data of 25 years from 1985 – 2009 of the study area is
collected from the Statistical department of Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

 

d. Model
Application

 

HEC-HMS Model: The Hydrologic
Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) is used for
rainfall-runoff simulation over large basins. It consists three main components
explained in detail as follows.

Basin Model Component:
The
purpose of basin model component is to add the data required for computation of
basin characteristics from HEC-HMS. The hydrologic methods like SCS Curve
Number is used for calculation for losses in watershed and SCS Unit Hydrograph
is used for transformation of rainfall into runoff.

 

Meteorological
Model Component: This
model component is used to select method for adding the precipitation data and
used for connecting the gauges with their respective sub-basins. In this study
Specified Hyetograph method was used as it allow to specify exact time-series
to use for hyetograph at sub-basins and also it is useful when only one gauge
precipitation data available is used for entire basin.

 

Control
Specification Component: This method is used to add starting and ending date
and time of the simulation.

 

Calibration and
validation of the model:

The
calibration of the model is made to match the simulated runoff peaks, volumes
and time of peaks with the observed data. The results obtained from the Hasur Watershed
10 events of runoff data selected for calibration and validation.

 

The
data is divided into 5 events for calibration (2000-2004) and 5 events
(2005-2009) for validation. The parameter selected for calibration is Curve
Number value and Optimization Technique value.

 

III. RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS

 

Calibration of
the model:

The
simulated results obtained from the HEC-HMS model shows that R2
value and NSE value very minimum hence calibration of the model is required.
Calibration is made by changing the optimization technique value and Curve
Number value. Runoff value, R2 value and NSE value before
calibration found to be 2118.2 m3/s, 0.5148 and -2.655.

The
below Fig: 2 (a) and Fig: 2 (b) shows the comparison graph of simulated runoff
values and observed runoff values after calibration. The Runoff value, R2
value and NSE value after calibration found to be 2125.3 m3/s,
0.9322 and 0.554.

 

 

 

 

Validation of the Model:

 

Validation of
the model is done by using the 2000-2004 calibrated discharge values with the
next 2005-2009 observed and simulated discharge values. The below Fig: 2 (c)
and Fig: 2 (d) shows the difference between the observed and simulated values
after validation and scattered graph shows the R2 value for the
observed and calculated discharge values and it is found to be 0.825.

Therefore the
calibrated and validated HEC-HMS model provided runoff rate for each the
un-gauged sub-basins in the watershed. The simulated results provide
information about maximum, minimum and mean value of discharge for each of the
basin. These predicted flow values can be used for planning and designing of
various watershed management measures like water conservation, flood control,
etc.

 

                                                (a)                                                                                                           (b)

 

 (c)                                                                                                           (d)         

 

Figure
2. (a) Comparison of Observed and Simulated Discharge after Calibration, (b) Scattered
graph of Observed and Simulated Discharge after Calibration, (c) Comparison of
Observed and Simulated Discharge after Validation, (d)  Scattered graph of Observed and Simulated
Discharge after Validation

 

IV. CONCLUSIONS

 

In
the present study attempt has been made to simulate the runoff from the HEC-HMS
model for the Hasur Watershed of Malaprabha River sub-basin of Krishna basin,
Karnataka, India.  The HEC-HMS model
required data’s were prepared from Arc Hydro and HEC-Geo HMS. For simulating
runoff in HEC-HMS model SCS Curve Number method and SCS Unit Hydrograph method
were used. The obtained results from the HEC-HMS model shows that calibration
is required to fit with the observed results. After calibration the R2
value and NSE value found to be 0.9322 and 0.554 and after validation R2
value found to be 0.825.

From
the overall consideration, it concludes that HEC-HMS model is suitable for
simulation of rainfall-runoff for large watersheds. It is also suitable for the
area where there is no gauges to measure the runoff.

 

 

V. REFERENCES

 

1 Asadi, A., Boostani, F. (2013). “Application of HEC-HMS for Flood Forecasting
in Kabkian Basin and Delibajak Sub-basin in Iran”. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), Vol.
3, Issue 9, pp.10-16.

2 Chatterjee, M., Rumpa De (2014). “Hydrological
Modeling Studies with HEC-HMS for Damodar Basin, India”.   World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 31,
Issue 12, pp. 2148-2154.

3 Choudhari, K., Panigrahi, B., Paul, J. C.
(2014). “Simulation of rainfall-runoff process using HEC-HMS model for
BalijoreNala watershed, Odisha, India”. International Journal of Geomatics and
Geosciences, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 253-265.

4 Dilip Kumar, Bhattacharjya, R. K. (2011).
“Distributed Rainfall Runoff Modeling”. International Journal of Earth Sciences
and Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 6, pp. 270-275.

5 Golrang, B.M., Lai, F.S., Sadeghi, S.H.R.,
Khamurudin, M.N., Kamziah, AbdKudus, Mashayekhi, M., Bagherian, R. (2013).
“Assessment of watershed management implemented on springal peak flood
discharge and flood volume, using HEC-HMS model”. Nature and Science, Vol. 3,
Issue 3, pp.6-12.

6 Gebre, S. L. (2015). “Application of the HEC-HMS
Model for Runoff Simulation of Upper Blue Nile River Basin”. Hydrological
Current Research, Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 1-8.

7 Iliasse, K., and Alaoui, A. H. (2014).
“Production of a Curve Number map for Hydrological simulation – Case study:
Kalaya Watershed located in Northern Morocco”. International Journal of
Innovation and Applied Studies, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 1691-1699.

8 Kamuju, N. (2015). “A Geo-Informatic Approach to
Estimate Stream Flow of an Undeveloped Catchment – A Hypothetical Research”.
International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS and Geography
(IJARSGG), Vol.3, Issue1, pp. 22-31.

9 Oloche, J., LI, Z. (2010). “Application of
HEC-HMS for flood forecasting in Misai and Wan’an catchments in China”. Water
Science and Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 14-22.

10 Punmia, B.C., and Lal, P. B. B. (1992).
“Irrigation and Water Power Engineering”. 12th edition, Laxmi
Publication (P) LTD. pp. 527.

11 US Army Corps of Civil
Engineers (USACE). “Hydrologic Engineering Center and Hydrologic Modeling System
(HEC-HMS) User’s Manual”, Version 4.0, December 2013.

12 US Army Corps of Civil
Engineers (USACE). “Hydrologic Engineering Center and Geospatial Hydrologic
Modeling System (HEC-Geo HMS) User’s Manual”, Version 10.1, February 2013.

13 US Environmental System
Research Institute (US – ESRI). “Arc Hydro Tools – Tutorial”, Version 2.0,
October 2011.

 

 

 

 

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