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Phonology passage) Translation Participant Rusting tin ??sl???

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Phonology is a branch science of linguistics, the study of
language in general. “Phonological rules are part of
communication through language, whether spoken or written, and knowing what
they are and why they exist can help us better understand our world” (Smith
1995). There are two common types of
phonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal
(Dis-assimilation) rules.  “Assimilation
is a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by making
the segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, dissimilation is a rule
that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. “Deletion in English Language is
the dropping of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put
close to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressed
syllables or in rapid speech” (Ramelan,1977, p. 174).. Finally, “dissimilation is when
a sound changes one of its features to become less similar to an adjacent sound,
usually to make the two sounds more distinguishable”. Consequently, studying
the way that a particular phonological rule operates in a spoken language,
linguists are able to determine the physiological and neurological mechanisms
that translate mental language into spoken language.

Conclusion

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                                         Second
example- replacing a glide (w) with a liquid glide (l)

                          Gliding-  First example – replacing a consonant (t)
with a liquid glide (l)

Rationale:  One sound is substituted for another sound in
a systematic way.

 

English
Words
(based
on passage)

Translation

Participant

Rusting
tin

??sl??? t?n

Rusling
tin

bowls

b?lz

balls

Table
3 below displays the results of dissimilation in English Language.

 Based on the recording:

 cultural     
cellular(cell)                penal         perpendicular  (7)

Annual       annular                           sexual        secular

These are examples:

  Finally,
“dissimilation is when a sound changes one of its
features to become less similar to an adjacent sound, usually to make the two
sounds more distinguishable” (Chang 2004). This type of rule is often seen
among people speaking a language that is not their native language where the
sound contrasts may be difficult so the rule is applied for ease of production
and perception (Chang, 2004, p.6).    In other words, a phonological process that
changes feature values of segments to make them less similar.

Rationale:  as above examples, a schwa is
inserted to break up a two- consonant cluster. The effect of this insertion is to
ease the pressure on the vital rapidity of movement

 

English
Words

Translation

Participant

perhaps

p???h?ps

 

develop

d??v?l?p

 

Table
2 below displays the results of insertion in English Language.

Based on the recording:

(See passage and transcription in Apendix)

Prove that Epenthesis is present in English
Language

 

    He adds that “there are two types of
insertion:  prothesis and epenthesis, the
former refers to the insertion of a segment at the beginning while the latter refers
to the insertion inside a word.  Snoopy +
/e/ ?
/esnupi/  ( prothesis) glass + plural /s/
?
/glæs?z/  (epenthesis)? ?  ? +stop / +nasal __ +fricative
?  ? ? / s __ z”.   There is a special kind of epenthesis which
involves inserting a schwa between a liquid and another consonant. This occurs
in nonstandard English between ? and /r/ or /l/ in words such as the
following: arthritis a???raInIs athlete a??lit

 Nathan (2008) asserts
that “not only can segments be deleted, sometimes they can be inserted instead.
There seem to be two basic reasons for insertion: preventing clusters of
consonants that violate syllable structure constraints in the language, and easing
transitions between segments that have multiple incompatibilities” (pg. 82).   A
particularly strange, but well-known kind of insertion is the famous
‘intrusive/linking r’ of British and some dialects of American English. In
these dialects a historical /r/ has been deleted in word-final coda position,
but when the word is followed by vowel initial words under complex and
not-completely understood circumstances, the /r/ reappears, an example of
‘intrusive r’ is: idea aIdi? idea is aIdi?rIz. All of the examples we have
seen so far involve insertion of vowels to break up sequences of consonants
that violate syllable structure constraints. In other cases the /r/ reappears
even when there was never an /r/ there in the first place (this is known as
‘intrusive r’). Typical examples of ‘linking r’ are rear ri?  rear end rir?nd    

 Noticed that the speaker left of the ending
letters off the words /lined, pot, sand, paved/, this was not deliberate. It
might have been unconscious and also the letters in front are stressed more
than those letters.

Explanation:  There are two reasons why this happened; 1.
The participant was relaxed and spoke causally or; 2.   the
loss of a final element as /t/ and /d/ are low stress consonant.

 

English Words

Transciption

Participants Pronunciation (British
speaker)

lined

la?n

line

pot

p?a

po

sand

san

san

paved

p?e?v

pave

.
Table 1 below displays the results of apocope (deletion) in English Language.

After
the data were collected, the researcher listened to each recording carefully a
few times and transcribed the problematic consonant clusters, based on his
phonetic training and teaching experience

The
researcher first created a friendly rapport with the participants, then
explained the recording will be used only for research purpose and participant’s
identity will remain anonymous. Next, the researcher asked the participant to
view the passage and read it aloud while being audio-recorded. The recording was
done in a friendly atmosphere.

Procedure

Instrument: Telephone recorder

Participant:  A female who speaks the British version of the
English Language.

Methodology

                                                                        

      Prove that deletion exist in English
Language

 “Deletion in English Language is the dropping
of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put close to each
other and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech”
(Ramelan,1977, p. 174). According to Roach (1983) “under
certain circumstances sounds disappear, or in certain circumstances a phoneme
may be realized as zero, or have zero realisation; elision is typical of rapid,
casual speech; the process of change in phoneme realisations produced by
changing the speed and casualness of speech, which is sometimes called
gradation. In other words, deletion is the elimination of a sound, this applies
more frequently to unstressed syllables and in causal speech” (p. 108).  Also, “Apocope is a form of deletion which is
the cutting off or loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word, and
especially the loss of unstressed vowels” (Roach 1983).

There are two common types of
phonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal
(Dis-assimilation) rules.  “Assimilation
is a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by making
the segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, “dissimilation is a rule
that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. A classic example of dissimilation
occurs in Latin, and the results of this process show up in modern day English.
Example of this in English is Noun and Adjective pairs” (Jun, 1995). Notably, the
purpose of this research is to explain deletion, syllabification, insertion and
dissimilation, four forms of non – universal rules of English language which
speakers apply when speaking without being aware of it.

 Phonetics and
phonemics, are concerned with the rules of combining speech sounds of language.
There are rules of combining speech sounds of language, and some rules which
are applicable to certain language might not be applicable to another language.
Phonological rules are part of communication through language, whether spoken
or written, and knowing what they are and why they exist can help us better
understand our world.  In order to
understand the purpose of phonological rules, we need to understand what a
phoneme is. According to the traditional phonological theories “a phoneme is
the minimal unit in the sound system of a language” ( Crystal,1997, p. 287) .
Phonological rules are the rules whether written or spoken that control how
sounds change during vocal communication. Also, these rules describe how
phonemes are realized as their allophones in a given environment. Environment
in phonology typically refers to 
neighboring phonemes

As it is mentioned before, the study of speech sound
structure of language is called phonology. Phonology is a branch science of
linguistics, the study of language in general. Odden (2005) states that “phonology
is one of the core fields that composes the discipline of linguistics, which is
defined as the scientific study of language structure”. The speech sounds of
language that we study in phonology are symblolic sounds that represent the
physical sounds of language. Odden (2005) says that “the point which is most
important to appreciate at this moment is that the “sounds” which phonology is
concerned with are symbolic sounds – they are cognitive abstractions, which
represent but are not the same as physical sounds” (p. 2).

One of the aspects of language is speech sound. The study of
speech sound in language is called phonology. Each language has its own speech
sound structure which differ from one language to another language. By learning
the speech sound structure of language, not only can we recognize and
understand how to pronounce a word of a language correctly, but can also
produce the word using correct pronunciation. Furthermore, we will be able to
explain why we should pronounce it that way.  In his book ‘English Phonetics,’ Ramelan (1994)
says “when a student wants to learn a foreign language, in this case, English,
he will have to learn to speak it” (p. 2). He has to try to speak in the way
the native speakers speak the language. This can be achieve by closely
imitating and mimicking them untirelessly until his pronunciation is
satisfactory and acceptable to them. Ramelan (1994) also said that “above all,
the student has to be able to discriminate the contastive sound units that
distinguish one utterance from another, both on the production level and on the
recognition level” (p. 3).

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