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Historically, of alcohol. Alcohol is a drug.

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Historically, alcohol plays an
important role in every part of the world thousands of years ago. Ingredients for
making alcoholic drinks had been used in early civilizations like fermented
grains, fruit juices and honeys. Researcher has found evidences of an early
alcoholic drinks in China around 7000 B.C, also in India but comes from different
ingredients which was distilled from rice way back 3000 and 2000 B.C. There are
also instances when alcohol was being worshiped by people as Gods. In Greece,
Dionysus as the God of grape harvest, winemaking
and wine. Mbaba Mwana Waresa, Zulu Goddess, South Africa a
fertility goddess of the Zulu religion. She is a goddess of the
rainbow, agriculture, rain and beer. Ninkasi, Sumerian the
Sumerian goddess of brewing and beer and head brewer to the gods themselves,
and many more. It had also became a great use in terms of medicinal purposes in
sixteenth century. But as time goes by, it also brought changes that government
began to promote movement about moderate use of alcohol.

            Alcohol is a drug. It is classed as
a depressant, meaning that it slows down vital functions—resulting in slurred
speech, unsteady movement, disturbed perceptions and an inability to react
quickly. (Foundation for drug-free World).

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            Alcohol is a cultural artifact; the form and meanings of
drinking alcoholic beverages
are culturally defined, as are the uses of any other major artifact. The form
is usually quite
explicitly stipulated, including the kind of drink that can be used, the amount
and rate of
intake, the time and place of drinking, the accompanying ritual, the sex and
age of the
drinker, the roles involved in drinking, and the role behavior proper to
-drinking. The
meanings of drinking, its relation to other aspects of the culture and society,
are usually
more implicit. Thus drinking in a particular society may be either a sacred or
a profane act,
depending on the context, and the people may not be aware of the basic
principles and
meanings that are actually involved (Mandelbaum, 1965: p.281).

The influence of alcohol
has positive and negative effects not only to our body but also to our society.
When we hear or even saw an occasion, a lot of scenarios or activities we may
picture out on that special day and one of it is drinking alcohol. It was
always been a tradition that has been adapt and accommodate as generations pass
by. Some people declared that a party wouldn’t be complete without drinking
alcohol. Alcohol tend to relax individual like for instance, a man has problem
in his relationship with his girlfriend and decided to drink alcohol, it
somehow de stress him from his problem. They claimed that alcohol makes people
forget their problems for a short period of time. And also according to
researchers the positive approach of alcohol is it can be used as protection to
cardiovascular diseases.

            And as for its negative effects, moderate drinking is not
bad but excessive alcohol use increases diseases such as liver disease, heart
disease, brain damage, alcohol induced pancreatitis, sleeping disorders, mental
illness, sexual problems etc. it also dangerous during pregnancy. In terms of
alcohol’s negative approach to others, we can obviously see the alarming situation
of our society nowadays. Because of excessive use of alcohol, people tend to do
things with or without their knowledge. Yes, it does forget things but due to
the factors such as having insufficient funds for a large expenditure, we also
say family problems, being depressed like for instance having no one when you
needed them or having someone pressuring you into doing something plus an
excessive amount of alcohol will most likely lead to commit aggressive criminal
offenses such as homicides, sexual abuse, assaults, child abuse, robbery and
many more.

            The problem most often associated with heavy
drinking, however, is alcoholism.
Simply put, alcoholism is addiction to alcohol, but beyond this basic
definition the symptoms
of alcoholism can be difficult to pinpoint. They include a craving for alcohol,
lack of self-control when drinking, a high tolerance for the effects of
alcohol, and physical withdrawal
symptoms, such as sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, when alcohol use ceases
(Torr,
1974:p.14)

            Because alcohol is a primary factor in such a large
variety of problem behaviours and
consequences, the focus is on alcohol specifically rather than on related issues
such as fetal
alcohol disorders or other abused substances (Korhonen, 2004: 2).

Crimes that are
related to alcohol are clearly an act of violating social norms for individuals
who are engaging to such activities are socially non-conformist. We all know
that drinking alcohol according to our ancestors plays an important role for
they worshiped it. And as time pass, became a part in any occasions for it makes
a party livelier. Therefore, an individual who goes beyond those creates a
violation to what is normal to our society.

            The social understanding of the study of deviance and
crime examine cultural norms;
how they change over time, how they are enforced, and what happens to
individuals and
societies when norms are broken. In sociology, social deviance or deviance
means those
behaviours or characteristics that violate significant social norms and
expectations and are
negatively valued by a large number of people ( Nalah., Bala, A., Ishaya &
Daniel, L, 2013: p,1)

There are variety of
offences that results from alcohol abuse: First is Homicides, it is an act of
killing one another. Alcohol blurs individuals mental state and will most
likely to commit crimes. Robbery, alcohol can intensify a robber’s feelings of
desperation and cause them to steal someone’s money or property. Sexual
Assault, a sexual assault is a forced sexual act and may involve touching,
kissing and intercourse. It can occur when there is a lack of consent,
as well as when the victim is unable to give consent due to intoxication or
mental state. Child Abuse, Stress, money trouble, professional
instability and a host of other factors can influence the amount of alcohol a
person consumes. However alcoholism not only affects an individual, it impacts
family members and friends – including children. Aggravated Assaults, a common
warning sign of alcohol abuse is irritability and extreme mood swings. Because
of this, some individuals turn violent after an episode of heavy drinking. Poor
decisions and impaired judgment, combined with aggression and hostility, can
quickly become dangerous. If violent thoughts and feelings are acted on, it can
lead to an aggravated assault charge and more. (Alcohol Rehab Guide)

            Society regards the victim of alcohol as possessing free
will and capacity to
understand his relations to society, Hence his failure is regarded as vicious.
This condition
has been accepted without question until very recently. Both the decision of
the courts and
modern teaching assume that the irresponsibility of persons who commit crime
under the
influence of spirits, is a subterfuge to diminish responsibility. Crimes
committed by persons
intoxicated, or under the influence of alcohol are constantly increasing (T.D
Crothers, 1914:
pp. 859)

            Its harmfulness for health is known and this feature of
it is a reasonably big burden
on the Hungarian public health care. At the same time consumer satisfying
services are not
considered to be criminal activities and even consuming itself is legal, not
illegal. So being
under the influence of alcohol (to be drunk) is not regulated by the
legislatures in the field of
criminal law, but crimes committed under the influence of alcohol are evaluated
and
sanctioned separately. If the consumption of alcohol leads to commitment of
crime, the
influence of alcohol will be direct or indirect (Deres, P, Ph.D: p27).

            Many and in fact majority of alcohol abuse related
studies have been indicted to the prevalence of alcohol abuse in younger
population whereas much of the treatment is also based on the same age group.
However, far fewer studies and research have focused on elderly persons, even
though in reality and in accordance to the current statistics, alcohol abuse
and dependence is at an epidemic proportion among the elderly. Statistics on
alcohol abuse and dependency by elderly remains far unreported, undiagnosed and
ignored. (Dar, Vol. 12, 173-181, 2006)

            The reasons that alcohol abuse and dependency by the
elderly goes undetected are varied, but most have to do with the fact that they
are no longer active in mainstream society and therefore are simply invisible.
They are less likely to get in trouble with the law, stopped for driving under
the influence, having a traffic accident, or causing problems in the community.
Therefore they have little contact with the police or the criminal justice
system. Since many are retired, there is very little chance their drinking will
cause them to lose a job or career. ( Karanja, J & Lindroos, L, 2011: pp,
8-9)     

Several
models have been proposed to explain the complex relationships between violence
or aggression and alcohol consumption. To avoid exposing human or animal
subjects to potentially serious injury, research results discussed below are
largely based on experiments on nonphysical aggression. Other studies involving
humans are based on epidemiological surveys or data obtained from archival or
official sources. (National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)

 

 

 

 

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