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Crimes a lot of definitions for cyber

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Crimes refer to any violation of law or the commission of an
act forbidden by law. Crime and criminality have been associated with man since
long time ago. There are different strategies of different countries to contend
with crime. It depends on their extent and nature. It can be concluded that a
nation with high index of crime cases cannot grow or develop well.. It can
contribute to negative impact in terms of social and economic development.

Cyber crime is a
new type of crime originating from the misuse of Science and Technology over
years. There are a lot of definitions for cyber crime. Cyber crime, also known
as, computer crime refers to any
crime that involves a computer and a network.

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. Computer is considered as a tool in cyber crime when the
individual is the main target of cyber crime. But computer is considered as
target when the crime is directed to the computer. In addition, cyber crime
also includes traditional crimes that been conducted with the access of
Internet. For example, telemarketing Internet fraud, Identity theft, and Credit
card account thefts. In simple words, cybercrime can be defined as any violent
action that been conducted by using computer or other devices with the access
of internet.

These types of crimes originate mainly from the Social Media Platforms. A Social
Media Platforms is a Web-based technology that enables the development,
deployment and management of social media solutions and services. It
provides the ability to create social media websites and services with
complete social media network functionality.

There are three major categories of cyber crimes
which are: crimes against the person, property and the government.

1.      The
first category of cyber crimes is Cyber
Crime against Person. Cyber crime against person includes harassment via
email or cyber-stalking. Cyber Stalking means following the moves of an
individual’s activity over internet. It can be done with the help of many
protocols available such as e- mail, chat rooms, and user net groups while,
harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or others. This crime usually
happens to women and teenagers. There was an incident which took place in
Ahmedabad, Gujarat. A girl was added using a Facebook Account as a friend. She
was lured to a private place through cyber chat by a man with his friends, and
they attempted to rape her. Luckily she was rescued by a passersby who heard
her screaming.

2.      Second
category of cyber crimes is that of Cyber
Crimes against all forms of Property. The other example is, cyber criminal
can take the contents of individual bank account. One widespread method of
getting people’s bank account details is the money transfer email scam. People
receive emails requesting help with transferring funds from another country.
Hacking into company websites is property trespass, and stealing information is
property theft. Internet time theft is also one of the cyber crimes against
property. It is done by an authorized person in the usage of the internet hours
which is actually paid by another person.

3.      The
third category is Cyber Crimes against
Governments. It constitutes another level of crime. Cyber terrorism is the
most serious type of crime in this category. Hacking into a government website,
particularly the military sites, is one manifestation of cyber terrorism. The
example of cyber crime against government is web jacking. Web Jacking attack
is a phishing technique that can be used in social engineering engagements. By
web jacking, hackers gain access and control over the website of another, and
they even change the content of website for fulfilling political objective or
for money.

Cyber crimes are everywhere, can happen to anyone, in any
time. Other types of cyber crime are identity theft, storing illegal
information, computer viruses, and fraud.

·        
Identity Theft:

Identity theft and Identity Fraud are terms used to refer to all
types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person’s
personal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for
economic gain. Unlike the fingerprints, which are unique to a person and cannot
be given to someone else for their use, the personal data ­ especially the
Social Security number, bank account or credit card number, telephone calling
card number, and other valuable identifying data ­ can be used, if they fall
into the wrong hands, for personal profit at the person’s expense. In the
United States and Canada, for example, many people have reported that unauthorized
persons have taken funds out of their bank or financial accounts, or, in the
worst cases, taken over their identities altogether, running up vast debts and
committing crimes while using the victims’ names. In many cases, a victim’s
losses may include not only out-of-pocket financial losses, but substantial
additional financial costs associated with trying to restore his reputation in
the community and correcting erroneous information for which the criminal is
responsible.

There are two main types of
identity theft named Account Takeover and
True Name Theft. Account Takeover identity theft refers to the type
of situation where an imposter uses the stolen personal information to gain
access to the person’s existing accounts. True name Identity Theft means
that the thief uses personal information to open new accounts. The thief might
open a new credit card account, establish cellular phone service, or open a new
checking account in order to obtain blank checks.

There are many ways by which this
crime is committed. In public places, for example, criminals may engage in
“shoulder surfing” i.e. watching someone from a nearby location as
they punch in  telephone calling card
number or credit card number­ or listening the conversation if someone gives
their credit-card number over the telephone to a hotel or rental car company.

In recent years, Social Media has
become an appealing place for criminals to obtain identifying data, such as
passwords or even banking information. In their haste to explore the exciting
features of the Internet, many people respond to “spam” or
unsolicited E-mails,­ that promise them some benefit but requests identifying
data, without realizing that in many cases, the requester has no intention of
keeping his promise. In some cases, criminals reportedly have used computer
technology to obtain large amounts of personal data. With enough identifying
information about an individual, a criminal can take over that individual’s
identity to conduct a wide range of crimes. For example, false applications for
loans and credit cards, fraudulent withdrawals from bank accounts, fraudulent
use of telephone calling cards, or obtaining other goods or privileges which
the criminal might be denied if he were to use his real name. If the criminal
takes steps to ensure that bills for the falsely obtained credit cards, or bank
statements showing the unauthorized withdrawals, are sent to an address other
than the victim’s, the victim may not become aware of what is happening until
the criminal has already inflicted substantial damage on the victim’s assets,
credit, and reputation.

·        
Storing Illegal Information:

Storing illegal information is a
major cyber crime. Criminals often use the Internet to obtain and transfer
illegal images. These are images and in some cases text, which are inadvertently
exposed to on a website that contains any of the following:

o  
Child abuse images (also known as ‘child
pornography’).

o  
Criminally obscene content which means images
featuring acts of extreme and violent sexual activity.

·        
Computer Virus:

A Computer Virus is a small
software program that spreads from one computer to another computer and that
interferes with computer operation.  It may corrupt or delete data on a
computer, use an e-mail program to spread the virus to other computers, or even
delete everything on the hard disk.  They are most easily spread by
attachments in e-mail messages or by instant messaging messages.

 

A
virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself
into other executable code or documents. Computer viruses get their name from
their resemblance to biological viruses, which spread by inserting themselves
into living cells. A file that is infected by a virus is called a host. Viruses
can be merely annoying, or they can cause severe damage to your computer. They
may be used to get personal information or to spoil the important documents or
files which are saved in the computer.

They can be disguised as
attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files. They also
spread by using downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in pirated
software or in other files or programs that you may download. 

·        
Frauds:

Fraud is a deliberate
misrepresentation which causes another person to suffer damaged. Several types
of criminal fraud include false advertising, advance-fee fraud, bankruptcy
fraud, etc. The best way to prevent fraud in both personal and
organizational finances is to develop processes that protect sensitive
information, enforce accountability, and consistently review financial records.

The correct term for fraud is PHISHING. It can be defined as the
fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies
in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as
passwords and credit card numbers, online.

OTHER TYPES OF PHISHING:

                                                             
i.     
Spear phishing: Phishing attempts
directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear
phishing. 

                                                           
ii.     
 Clone
phishing: A type of phishing attack whereby a legitimate, and previously
delivered, email containing an attachment or link has had its content and
recipient address / addresses taken and used to create an almost identical or
cloned email.

                                                         
iii.     
Social media websites are popular places for
building new relationships and contacts. However, social media websites are
also becoming a place for cyber criminals to indulge in various cyber crimes.
In fact, the share of offences related to social media websites among cyber
crimes registered in India is showing an upward trend. Most of these cases are
of posting defamatory or obscene matter or images on various social media
websites. Many crimes related to social networking sites involving personating,
defamation and anti-national activities have been reported recently. The bureau
records suggest that most cyber offences are for illegal gain, eve-teasing and
harassment.

We have no dedicated social media laws in
India although guidelines for social media contents monitoring in
India may be prescribed. Although we have a cyber law in India in the form of Information
Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000) yet, we have no dedicated social
networking laws in India. The cyber law for social media in
India needs to be strengthened further keeping in mind a balance between
civil liberties and law enforcement requirements. Human rights protection in
cyberspace in India is also required to be considered by Indian
government. Presently, protecting civil liberties protection in Indian
cyberspace is not a priority for India and this is a serious problem.

Similarly, social media users must have basic level
awareness about cyber laws and cyber crimes. Many of these cyber crimes can be
prevented if public awareness about the same is spread in India.

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