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CHAPTER documented that children are believed to

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related
Literature

Parenting Styles

Local Literature

Like most of the most of the countries in
Asia, it is important for each Filipino to prioritize value and have strong
relational bonds within their families. But resulting from colonial
experiences, more specifically the influence of Chinese people, Confucianism
and Buddhism’s principle of family attachments and obligations have departed
from the foundation of Filipino’s family and social values.

Understanding parenting in the
Philippines, we start on each parent’s belief on how to properly raise children
and also their parental behavior.  This
is called parental enthnotheories according to Harkness and Supper (2006).
Toddlers and infants are considered by Filipino parents to don’t have yet a
cognitive mind, lacking of understanding, and are dominated by their bare
emotions that demand to have immediate satisfactions (Dela Cruz et al. 2001). Key
ethnographic studies of indigenous and rural Filipino communities have ?esh out
this conception. In one of the earliest detailed studies on Filipino child
raising in a rural community of Tarong in Ilocos, Nydegger and Nydegger (1966)
documented that children are believed to come into the world without sense. It
is in ages 4-6 when they have the potential to develop their maturity in
understanding instruction and guidance. 
This is the time when children are given household responsibilities and
are expected to control their impulsiveness to obey their parents, elders, and
older siblings.

Another primary factor in Filipino
families is the emphasis of gratification of giving back of children to their
parents. an expectation that reinforces the family’s interdependence and
supports the value of utang na loob— 
that is, acknowledging and reciprocating parents’ care and sacri?ces
(Medina 2001).

While these Filipino parenting behaviors
may evolve in the years to come, the consequences of these beliefs and
behaviors for Filipino families and children’s development will need to be
fully examined.

Foreign Literature

In adolescents aged 15-17, the parenting
style and a range of personality factors revealed very significant relationship.
These include factors related to character, but also temperament, social
communication, mental (in)stability, activity/passivity with a strong
biological basis. There are two types of parents that are identified by Rohner
(1980). Accepting parents are those who shows affection physically and verbally
and may be a combination of the two so that the child may feel accepted and
loved. However, Rejecting parents are those who often shows negative vibes around
their children. They often tend to be aggressive, compare their children and
regard them as a burden (Loudováa, 2015).

Parenting style has been defined as the standard strategies
that parents used in child rearing.  Parents
who offers full support with strict control to their children are called
Authoritative Parents. While, parents who provides strict control without
giving full support to their children are called Authoritarian Parents. an
uninvolved parenting style are being supportive while some are being neglectful
with respect to their childrens decisions. It was proven that having an
authoritative parents have more beneficial effects on adolescents lifestyles
than having an authoritarian parents. (Collins, Maccoby,
Steinberg, Hetherington, & Bornstein, 2000)

Personality Traits

Foreign Literature

Personality
Traits are the peoples’ characteristics pattern of thoughts, feelings and
behaviors. Meanwhile, on the Psychological Perspective,  personality traits was described as how the
individuals differ from one another (Diener and Lucas, 2018). McCrae and Costa
( 1987) developed  this mostly used system
of traits which is called the Five-Factor Model and it includes the five broad
traits which are the following: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,
Agreeableness and Neuroticism (OCEAN).

In
evolutionary perspective, every personality traits has its advantage (Furnham ,
2008). It is said that the personality of an individual has an impact on career
choice (Hussain et al, 2011).  and other
studies shows that a person’s choice of career can be determined through his
personality traits. (Hossain et al, 2012). As defined as the differences
between learners, personality has also an advantage in the field of education,
it is important because it shapes the learners approach to verbal and different
kinds of learning. . (Rossier, 1975; Busch, 1982; Dawale and Furnham, 1999)

                        Furthermore, family is the first
place of contact once a child is born. The family specifically the parents are
the ones who has the power to make or to mold a child’s personality. Though various
factors can influence ones personality development, the family has the most impact
on child’s personality development. Parenting is a non-stop process. The
outcome of successful  or unsuccessful
parenting can be seen in grownup child’s personality. The decisions and the
personality of this adolescent reflects the parenting he had received (Mullin,
2005).

Foreign Studies

According
to Baumrind (1967), the four parenting styles were identified through the
theory of social development. The four parenting styles are authoritative,
neglectful parenting, permissive and authoritarian. The relationship between a
parent and child is a complex activity that comprises specific behavior and
attitude that may impact a child’s personality. Demandingness and parental
responsiveness are the two components of parenting (Fletcher, et al., 2008).

The
extent to which parents set a principle for their children and how their
regulation was based is called parental demandingness. Parental responsiveness
refers to emotional quality of parents. The four main parenting styles are
authoritative parenting, neglectful parenting, permissive parenting and
authoritarian parenting. Authoritative parenting is the combination of
responsiveness and demandingness. They take consideration of their child’s
point of view and seeks the child’s participation in making decisions but at
the same time they make logical demands and set limits. (Berg, 2011; Weiss
& Schwarz, 1996; Zupancic, Podlesek, & Kavcic, 2004).

This
type of parents is supportive and understanding while having their child
disciplined and monitored fairly (Baumrind, 1971). Neglectful parenting are
parents who supports their child with his/her basic needs but detached from the
child’s life. Parents don’t engage a lot with their child and the worst thing
about this is that they may also neglect their child’s needs. They don’t
usually spend time with each other instead the parents prefer their child to
have fun on his/her own through watching televisions and playing toys. The
child’s behavior, the lack of self-control which may affect his/her
communication skills were the effects of a child who have neglectful parents. Have
a small amount of demand from their child, provides interaction and a great
deal of warmth, rarely disciplines their child because they have low
expectations of self-control and maturity were the attributes of a permissive
parent. The child was given a higher chance to be free, has a few boundaries
and do not stop from doing bad habits unless he/she was physically hurt
(Rossman & Rea, 2005). Parents are fostering and nurturing but as much as
possible they stay away from imposing controls and demands over their child’s
behavior. (Zupancic et al., 2004). They have few limits for their child, so
they often view their child as a friend (Berg, 2011). According to Baumrind
(1967), permissive parents tends to be a lot more responsive than demanding.
Authoritarian parenting is difficult. They expect their child to act and accept
their demands without arguing or questioning them and they engage a little
mutual interaction with their child. Failure to comply with their desire leads
to a punishment, authoritarian parents have a great control on their child’s
life. They’re not as responsive as their child. Having authoritarian parents
may cause a child to be authoritative too. They set their standards very high
and they require guidance and obedience (Berg, 2011).

 

 Local
Studies

In the Philippines, the family plays a very important role in
adolescents’ lives and live with their parents into emerging adulthood.
Filipino parents always tell their child to be obedient as a sign of respect
and honor to the country (Medina, 2001). Parental style has the biggest
contribution in child’s development. The parental behavior
patterns are influenced by two factors in terms of the degree and the
combination of two underlying compositions – the demandingness/control and
responsiveness/warmth. Demandingness/control includes the signs of being
strict, supervised, having behavioral demands and daily monitoring (Backer-Fulghum et al., 2012).
Some researchers believed that parenting behaviors can either be beneficial or
at least less harmful when they have an environment that’s giving them light
mood through their cultural ideals (Chao, 1994; Dwairy, 2004).