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Abstract – This paper discusses the important reasons
because of which farmers commit suicide. Many technological advances have come
up which has led to development of new tools and equipment’s that majorly
focuses on agriculture. But, we have mostly concentrated on Farmers rather than
on farming. According to a survey done the majority of suicides are due to
bankruptcy, they cannot repay the loan provided to them on time. The demands of
farmers are:

 

•      
They need better price for their produce

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•      
Need better agricultural pension

 

•      
Loan waiver

 

Through a detailed survey, we
have identified possible gaps in Agriculture and have provided recommendations
on the suicide rate of farmers are decreased.

 

Keywords—Suicide,
debtedness, bankruptcy, NCRB

 

I.    
INTRODUCTION

 

India is an agrarian country
with around 70% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon
agriculture. Many Commentators and researchers claim that farmers are the most
distressed group in the country as the suicide rate are becoming higher and increasing
year by year. They also claim that farmers group needs proper counselling.
National Crime Research Bureau (NCRB) provides statistics for the suicide rate
in India. A rebuilding of the suicide rates by economists Deepankar Basu and
Kartik Misra of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Debarshi Das of
IIT-Guwahati published last year in the Economic and Political Weekly
disclosed that except for Kerala and Maharashtra, the ratio of suicide rates
(or the suicide transience rates, as the researchers define the rates) for
farm-related workers and nonfarming workers was less than one in all the states
between 1995 and 2011.Maharashtra is the most affected state for farmer’s where
famers suicide. Over

 

 

 

12.000 famer’s suicide every year. Numerous reasons have
been presented to explain why farmers commit suicide in India, including:
floods, famine, debt, public health, use of lower quality pesticides due to
less investments producing a declined harvest and also government economic
policies. The Government of Maharashtra became anxious about the highest total
number of farmer’s suicides among its rural populations, specially made its own
study into reasons. At its behest, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development
Research in Mumbai did field research and found the top causes of farmer’s
suicides to be: dues, low pay and crop failure, family issues such as illness
and inability to pay celebration expenditures for daughter’s marriage, lack of
secondary income occupations and lack of value-added opportunities.

 

The
banking sector of India have come up with many schemes for the farmers so that
famer’s don’t have to worry about the money deposition. These schemes sometimes
prove to be beneficiary for the farmers.

 

 

II.   
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

 

Study also claims that farmer’s
suicide in India may be linked to changes that take place in the climate.
Increase in temperature leads to crop yield reduction. As discussed above the
various reasons about the farmer’s committing suicide. The study found out that
these there are some natural factors responsible for farmer’s death but did not
found measure e to prevent it. The preventive measures and strategies used by
other nations may not necessarily be the same for the Indian farmers. Lively
participation by psychiatrists in prevention and investigation work in the
field of farmers’ suicide is now being recognized in India. Farming done in
South Indian countries like Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka has been successfully.
But for Maharashtra the case is different.

Possible
Solutions can be:

 

1.     
Agriculture dependency on nature should be reduced by water
management schemes.

 

2.     
The farmers must be guided and advised with the utilization
of funds.

 

3.     
Organic farming must be fortified.

 

4.     
The extreme powers of the money lenders must be checked.

 

5.     
Middle men should be eliminated.

 

 

III. REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE

 

Research says that the increase ratio of farmer’s suicide
varies from needs and location of famer’s residing in rural areas. Study done
by researches states that its mainly due to the scarcity of basic needs and
agricultural loss which in turn leads to hypertension and ultimately leads to
the death of a farmer. Along with this there are also many other external
factors which leads farmers suicidal such as lack of efficient resources,
debts, family income, bankruptcy and many more. Lack of confidence and
illiteracy also somewhere plays a role in farmer’s death in high proportion.

According to Alexandra Hofle of  health and society in south Asia Series
stated that.

 

As the majority of quantitative studies on farmers commiting
sucide is uses statistical data,many analyze the use of the statistics
.Especially the quality of adta on sucide obtained from the NCRB has been
analyzed critically.As there are no comprehensive evidence,Mayer(2011)
concludes that the  official NCRB
statistics are valuable. In contrast to these
conclusions, Staples (2012), Bose et al. (2006), Patel et al. (2012), Rane and
Nadkarni (2014) as well as Radhakrishnan and Andrade (2012) found an
underestimation of suicide data in India. Radhakrishnan and Andrade (2012), for
instance, argue that especially in rural areas data on suicides are incomplete.
According to them, this can be attributed to the fact that family members often
cite illness or accident as reasons for death as they fear the stigma
associated with suicide.

 

 

                   IV. METHODOLOGY

 

To understand the reasons
behind farmers committing to suicide, the data is captured through the
secondary sources.

The secondary data is
obtained through the Net, books and related journals. These annual reports were
obtained from websites.

There is a need for social
and cultural awakening with in the village communities. In 1998, World Bank’s
structural adjustment policies forced the government to replace farm saved
seeds with corporate seeds. The Indian farmers are forced to buy the
high-priced seeds manufactured by the multinationals. The small farmers in
India are the major farming community and the largest farming community in the
world was badly affected due to these changes. This community is on the
boundary of extinction due to the conditions imposed by WTO. The World Bank’s
structural adjustment policies enforced India to open up its seed sector to
global corporations in 1998.

 

Steps Modi Government has taken to tackle
suicide rates of farmers:

 

70% cut in
Monsanto’s Payments:

 

Modi government declared a
70% cut in the payment that the local firms pay Monsanto (American
multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation). For its
cotton seeds. With such deep cut in its revenue which Monsanto has been blamed
of jacking up due to its monopoly.

 

Pradhan Mantri
Krishi Sinchai Yojana

 

This
is the national mission of under Modi’s government to expand the irrigation in
the country and enable the agriculture to become unaffected to the impulses of Indian
monsoon.

 

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Beema Yojna (Insurance of crops for
Farmers): Another
important move required to fight the issue if, farmer’s suicide is still
present. This new scheme will provide compensation for the losses acquired by
the farmer.

 

Soil Health Card:

 

Government issues soil card
to farmers which has crop wise recommendations on nutrients and fertilizers
that are required by farmers for farming in order to increase the productivity
and enhance the crop yield. In India there are many soil testing labs which
tests the samples of soil.

Till date, with the help of
technology government has been developing many new tools and equipment’s that
support farming. But, here, initial consideration must be Farmers.

 

Collective Knowledge should
be known about the farming.

V.  PROBLEMS

 

The
Farmers are uneducated, disorganized and doesn’t understand the financial
activities that happen around them. Due to the lack of Agricultural Marketing
Farmers become the innocent victims of poverty and Bankruptcy. Here, the
middlemen and money Lenders come into the picture. They apply their own tactics
and make farmers victim of their own thoughts and actions.

The fast increment in cultivation
of crops cost has been a major matter of concern. Non- availability of farm
credit is continuously causing distress amongst farmers. An agriculture scheme
was introduced in year 2004-2005 so that the credit flows increase to farmers.

For Eg: In Maharashtra state maximum
number of suicides are been recorded. The cotton crop is grown mostly under
rain fed condition the gross cost in current prices has escalated massively
from Rs. 3,267/ha in 1989-90 to Rs. 61,907/ha in 2011-12. Increased
indebtedness is a consequence of the agrarian emergency, which is attributable
mainly to the sharp decline in the profitability of farming. It follows,
therefore, that no effort that seeks to address the question of indebtedness
without undertaking the crucial issue of productivity will yield the desired
result of giving a boost to the farm sector.

The
weather of India has now become unpredictable at best and even the rainfall
doesn’t happen at right time. Even now moderate rainfall is needed for proper
agriculture and has now reached extreme. The situation has now become extremely
bad in Central India, which is somewhere regarded as agricultural heartland of
India. The weather patterns have also been changing from many years. One of the
most crucial problems faced by farmers in India is regarding marketing. The
laws in India are outdated and most often a farmer has no option but to sell
his produce in regulated markets, where the middlemen are the ones making the
maximum gains. At times, they can make up to 75% profits. If the middlemen can
be eliminated then the farmers could have sold their products at better rates.

 

Other Reasons for farmer’s
committing suicide is imbalanced Supply chain:

 

1.     
Distress Sale

 

2.     
Lack of transportation facilities

 

3.     
Unfavorable Mandis

 

4.     
Intermediaries

 

5.     
Lack of market intelligence

 

6.     
Dalal and local agents

 

7.     
Improper Agricultural Marketing

 

 

 

Suicides reported amongst

 

Farmers:

 

 

2014-2015                              122

 

2015-2016                              1478

 

2016-2017                              848

 

It is the duty of supervisory
governments to ensure that such incidents must not happen and should take
essential steps to lessen the suicide rates and rescue the farmers. The state
is looking forward on how to eliminate these problems. Every sector in business
provides many services like manpower, equipment etc.

 

VI. CONCLUSION

 

            As we have seen above, major cause for the changes which
took agricultural sector since 1990. Though these economic, social,
individual,political and environmental problems were before 1990, they weren’t
present at this level though. The wave of the famer suicides occurred in the
states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra , Madhya Pradesh and
Chhattisgarh, all these states were mostly affected due to farmer suicides
whereas other states were not affected that much as compared to these states on
that level. These five states weren’t beneficiaries of the green revolution ,
it only helped certain crops such as wheat and those crops are now grown in
five states. The first states to liberalize economies were Andhra and
Karnataka. These suicides have been related to the failure of government
policies as well.But now there are laws undertaken by governing bodies in order
to save or reduce farmers sucide rate.

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