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Abstract

The research paper is designed to analyze the metrics of
quality assurance of a software developed using Agile Methodologies. Agile
Methods include Extreme Programming (XP), SCRUM, Feature Driven Development and
Crystal Methods. There have been frameworks made to enhance the quality
assurance procedures for Extreme Programming and SCRUM Methodologies but there
is inadequate research on such methods for Feature Driven and Crystal
Methods.  In this paper, an effort has been
made to come up with a framework for the quality assurance of software
developed using Feature Driven Development and Crystal Methods. The framework
includes analysis of processes and work products of the methodologies and
presents a systematic view of how quality assurance can effect and enhance the
software developed using Feature Driven Development and Crystal Methods. The
output of the research paper is a procedural framework which would assist in
enhancing quality assurance in Feature Driven and Crystal Methods Software
Development.

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Keywords: Agile Methods, Feature Driven Development, Crystal
Methods, Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Software Quality Assurance, Processes,
Metrics

Introduction

Background

Software Quality is the extent to which a software system,
its component, process, framework, or methodology meets a specified requirement
1.  Software Quality is primarily
concerned by the time required to produce the project, degree of satisfaction
of the customer which is directly dependant on the completeness and
accurateness of the deployed requirements, and the cost it has taken to develop
such a software system. Software Quality Assurance in turn analyses and  confirms that the three basic points of the
software are met with closest possible satisfaction level.  Quality has been defined by many scientists
and some of the definitions are as follows: Webster has described Quality as
“The totality of features and characteristics of a product or a service
that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” 8,1. Crosby
has given his view on Quality as “confromance to sofware solution to the
requirements” 8,2,3. Juran’s view on Quality is the fitness of a sofware
product 8,4 while Deming states it as an ability of software product to meet
the end-user requirmenets 8,5. All of them have put emphasis on requirments
and thus puts all the impetus on clarity and quality of developing software
which implement them closest to how the user wants them or needs them to be
implemented.

Agile software development is an alternative to the
traditional waterfall approach where the software requirements are locked in
and are rarely every changed during the lifecycle of the software development
to the processes where incremental delivery of the software product is produced
and at each increment or iteration requirements are inspected and analyzed in
accordance with the acceptance and satisfaction level of the customer. Agile
methods are used to develop systems in a faster way which came in to existence
in the late 19990s. 10.Agile methods have gained acceptance in the software
development market because they can accomodate changing requirments due to its
iterative nature and thus give the capability to the developer to re-test
re-use re-check and re-manage processes before finalizng and delivering the
product.

Agile Methodology is an alternative to traditional project
management to increase the product quality, reduce time to market and to
increase customer satisfaction 4. The traditional methods have shown tremendous
weakness when projects have demanded scalability, extensibility, up gradation,
review, and risk management due to which Software Quality has suffered and
millions of dollars have been wasted by companies.

Significance and Need of Research

Tom Cargil’s Ninety-nine rule depicts the major problem in
waterfall or traditional appraches where

“The first 90% of the code accounts for the first 90%
of the development time. The remaining 10% of the code accounts for the other
90% of the development time”

and that would mean that there is a siginificant amount of
time which is getting wasted by doing processes which have already been done
and if any of that work requires to be redone the coupling and cohesion levels
of a waterfall model imply that the changes will propogate and sabotage the
project progress in terms of time, quality, and budget; all of which in turn
would lower the satsifaction level of the customer which ultimately will result
in negativity for the development firm.

The research paper is designed to develop a framework which
would assist the developers to provide quality assurance for the agile methods specifically
for feature driven programming and crystal methods. this paper entails the
importance of clarified frameworks to provide quality software assurance
techniques in the field of software development when agile methods are
implemented. traditional approaches have been studied and there are methods which
have depicted the improvement of quality in software. this paper will provide
significant input in dealing with the quality paradigm for agile methods.

Objective

·        
Analysis of Agile Methods and Quality approaches
for each technique.

·        
Framework providing quality assurance for Agile
Methods such as feature driven programming and crystal methods.

·        
Study of processes involved in the feature
driven programming and crystal methods for developing quality assurance
framework.

Scope and Limitations

The paper would analyze the processes in its purity and
develop a pure framework for the processes of feature driven programming and
crystal methods. it would implement a framework which could be applied to the
basics of the Agile methods at smaller to medium scaled projects. the paper has
limited scope in methods where a fusion of agile methods is used either with
the types of agile methods themselves or with other software development
techniques and in projects which tend to be on the larger to bigger domain.  

 

Literature Review & Related Works

1. Agile Methods and Quality – A Survery by BODJE N Kauth
Nathan Regis and Dr. G.M . Nasira 9

A survery conducted by N Kauth Regis and Dr. G. M . Nasira
in Seimens on a project where they were devleopming using Agile Methods
describes clearly how they used quality assurance to enhance the project.  This paper discusses how quality should be
handled. this paper as all survery papers attempt to organize research results
for topics of agile methods related to softwre quality.  

The Techniques for Extreme Programming are described in the
paper as in follows:

Technique

Description

System Metaphor

Simple Story of how system works

Face-to-Face Communication

Two deveopers work together to find bugs

Pair Programming

Implemented requirements are integrated and tested for quality
assurance

Continous Integration

Quality assurance test done on finished system

Refactoring

Smallchanges should not affet codebahviour but increase code quality

Test driven development

Crete run and makes changes to tests till system passes

Frequent Customer Feedback

Customer feedback for each release/deliverable

 

The paper works on Quality within Agile Development
describgin the processes involved as follows:

Quality Defect Discovery:

The techniques for quality defect discover are : Sfotware
inspection, code inspetion, software testing and debugging etc.

Quality defects on code level:

Varioius forms of quality defects exist such as: Code
Smells, architecue smelss, design patterns and anti pattersn, desgin
charactersitics and bug pattersn.

Quality defect Ontology:

the ontology proposed in the paper consists of the following
processes:

predispositions: items which foster or are responsible for
bugs

causes: the causes to predispositions and the necessary
steps to avoid them

defect: the actual defect which has occurred in the software

symptom: the effect of the defect on software

prevention: tecchniques to prevent the dispoistioin

treatment: methods to remove, reduce, or mitigate the
defect.

Related to Paper:

As there is dicussion on the techniques for Extemer
programming in this paper, this paper also presents a framework with description
for the techniques and processes used in Feature driven programming and cystal
methods.

2. GUIDELEINES TO MINIMIZE THE COST OF SOFTWARE QUALITY IN
AGILE SCRUM PROCESS BY DEEPA VIJAY AND GOPINATH GANAPATHY

A case study of Agile development done using SCRUM processin
a retail domain project. the paper has produced a fraemwork which describes how
to handel quality assurance in SCRUM processes and how enhancement of qulaity
impacts cost of software development.

The practices used in SCRUM are described as follows in the
paper:

SCRUM Practice

Description

Envisioning Meeting

Meeting with the stakeholders to discuss the project.

Sprint planning meeting

Each meeting is termed as sprint, and a sprint is held before every
iterative development phase

Spritn backlog

List of tasks to turn product backlog as sprint for next increment

User story

A story should be INVEST (Independent, Negotiable, Valuable,
Estimable, Small, TEstable)

DONE

A product is done only when all activites have been completed

Srpitn demo

This is where the customer is shown the product developed at the end
of current sprint

Sprint meeting

Meeting held at end of each sprint to discuss shortcomings of current
sprint and strategies for next sprint

REquirments Meeting

Meeting to clairfy requirments

The empirical study presented in thsi paper described the
gaps which have occurred between the SCRUM practices and how they were actually
implemented during the project and what issues were faced in implementing such
SCRUM practices. The gaps were described by the paper as follows:

 

 

 

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