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Abstract

 

 

Consumer
Buying Behavior is the area of interest for all the companies. Not for their
upcoming offerings but for their current offerings too. Its continuous analysis
is required in order to fulfill the requirement of customers as well as to
compete effectively with the increased degree of competition from direct
competitors and indirect competition. There are several factors which can
affect the consumer buying behavior but when companies want to analyze it
expensive and Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), the role of packaging found to
have the significant role in affecting consumer buying behavior. That’s why
major purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of elements of packaging
on consumer buying behavior related with the purchase of chocolates which are treated
as Fast Moving Consumer Goods as well as expensive products in India and for
the analysis of packaging elements on consumer buying behavior a structured
close ended questionnaire was developed through the help of important variables
and methodologies used in the prior research work.

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However it
is difficult to measure the consumer buying behavior related with the purchase
of  different brands of one company. The
major advantage of this research is that this research helps most of the
marketers in using packaging in the way it can produce the desired impact of
the customers of expensive as well as FMCG.

 

Nutritional label and Consumer buying behaviour on chocolates

Introduction:

We
are living in the age of communication. Any one of us living anywhere in the
world use different terms, symbols, signs, use different tools for advertising
and prefer different packaging for products in order to satisfy miscellaneous
needs more appropriately. (Gilaninia,
Ganjinia and Moradi, 2013)

But the
advancement in technology in the age of communication affects almost all types
of human activities and it is also backed by the use of communication and mass
communication (Gilaninia and Sharif,
2011) and when marketers want to see their offerings from the point of
view of consumers they found that packaging of goods is also an important tool
of visual communication. (Mohammadi,
2011)

The role of
packaging is almost a change phenomenon because of the competition, change in
consumer’s life styles and increase in the rate of self service. On the other
hands producers are also taking interest in packaging not only as tool of sales
promotion but also because of its impact of impulsive buying and increase in
the market share of the company. (Mutil,
2012)

 

Statement of problem:

It
has been observed that marketers are always trying to influence consumer buying
behavior by use of different marketing mix elements; each and every marketing
mix element has its own impact on consumer buying behavior. Similarly packaging
has its own impact on consumer buying behavior, especially on the last stage of
consumer buying behavior i.e. purchase decision there is a significant impact
of packaging and this impact is more significant in the purchase of fast moving
consumer goods

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ø Objectives of research

 

Ø
Some objectives and major objectives of this research are
listed below:

Ø
1. To check the impact of packaging of chocolates on consumer
purchase decision

Ø
2. To determine the effect of visual elements of packaging on
consumer buying behavior associated with chocolates.

Ø
 3. To check the result
of verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behavior associated with
chocolates.

Ø
 4. To check the upshot
of demographic variables on the selection of chocolate brand.

Ø
 5. To compare the
importance of verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behavior
associated with two most popular chocolate brands.

 

Ø Objectives :

·       
To
identify whether nutritional labeling is observed by people while undertaking
grocery and how much awareness do they have?

·       
To
determine what role nutritional labeling play in marketing of a product through
product packaging

·       
To
determine the importance of nutritional labeling

·       
To
suggest recommendations on improving nutritional labeling based on research
findings

 

 

 

Packaging:

·       
Development
of wrappers and covers, for company’s offerings is known as Packaging. (Keller, 2009) the importance of
packaging can be estimated by its use as most of marketers believes that it is
a part of part of marketing mix elements and must be considered as the
important element in product strategy. (Kottler,
2008) it has significant importance in the product strategy that most of
the times marketers try to take competitive advantage by using these marketing
mix elements over the competing brands. (Keller,
2009)

 

·       
Moreover
packaging is also an important tool for Brand recognition and for the development
of Brand associations. (Keller, 2009) and
at last it is the toll through which marketers became able to achieve marketing
objectives by fulfilling the desires of consumers through packaging aesthetics
in the form of packaging size, packaging shape, packaging color, text used on
packaging, graphics used on packaging and by other functional elements of
packaging. (Rundh, 2013)

 

 

·       
Moreover it
is proved by the research that Packaging is evaluated positively by the
consumers if it became able to communicate meaning of the product
comprehensively and consistently. (Hannele,
Kauppinen Raisanen, 2010) When it comes to communication then packaging
is also an effective tool which helps marketers in gaining the attention of
their target market. Through this marketers are not only able to communicate
their value properly but also became able to grab consumer attention at the
point of purchase. (Robert & Julie,
1998) not only this packaging is the only tool which is help
organizations as well as consumers in fulfilling their requirements regarding
product storage & product transportation. (Calver, 2007)

 

·       
Components of Packaging:

·       
Initially
research identified six elements of packaging which includes size of packaging,
color of packaging, Text used on packaging, Material of packaging, Graphics
used on packaging and Smell. (Smith and
Taylor, 2004) But research work conducted after wards indicates that
packaging elements are divided into two categories which are visual elements
and verbal elements (Adam and Ali,
2014)

 

 

·       
Visual Element of Packaging:

·       
These
elements are the useful tool to influence the emotions of the target market.
Marketers can use lot of visual elements of packaging when the product is
associated with the category which requires low customer involvement and customer
do not want to waste their efforts in searching for products (Pinya, 2004)

 

·       
Size:

·       
The research conducted in the year 2008 proves that
redesigning of packaging increases the rate of consumption, especially when the
product is available in larger size (Kotler,
2008) furthermore increase in size of packaging also indicates better
quality (Smith, 2004) and
influence the desire to consumer. (Keller,
2009)

 

·       
Moreover,
access of new markets can easily be done by the change of packaging. (Arun; Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali, 2012) furthermore
it has been also proved by the research that consumers having small families
does not focuses on large size packs and treat them as waste of product as the
amount of product will be more than their requirements (Pinya, 2004) and if does not have longer reliability then
consumers will not be inclined towards the larger sizes. (Golnesa, 2013)

 

 

·       
Graphics:

·       
It not only
helps marketers in making their product unique but also helps them in
highlighting their brand name more effectively by maintaining its individuality
and identity in shelves. (Smith and
Taylor 2004) Use of graphics is helpful in value addition in the
physical appearance of the brand and also improves the exterior by enhancing
the quality of aesthetics. Not only this graphics has the ability to produce
positive impact on consumer mood and sometimes graphics matches with the unseen
goals or unseen determination and hence will help marketers in enhancing the
recall rate of their bands as compared to the competing ones. (Pinya, 2004)

 

 

·       
A
qualitative research conducted in the year 2013 identifies that textual
elements associated with graphics are more worthwhile if they are placed on the
left side of the packaging and pictorial elements will be considered worthwhile
when they are placed on the right side of the packaging. (Pinya, 2004)

 

 

·       
This is an
important indication for marketers that graphics can be made more attractive
through the proper placement of elements which are associated with graphics.
Graphics are considered important whether consumer have the brand loyalty or
not. When consumer are preferring any brand then graphics helps them in
eliminating the clutter and when they are not loyal to any of the brand then
graphics act as an important tool which can at least grasp their attention. (Pinya, 2004) as pictorials on
packaging can increases the level of interest and level of curiosity of
customers. (Lynsey ; Laura; Armstrong;
Heather, 2013)

 

 

·       
Material

·       
As other
visual elements, material also communicates, most importantly material affects
the perceived quality associated with the product that means consumers thinking
regarding material results in change of the perceived quality. Furthermore
sometimes marketers use those packaging material which can prevent the
freshness of product under extremely high or extremely low temperature. (Smith and Taylor, 2004)

 

·       
In another
study conducted in the year 2013 three types of packaging material including
glass, plastic and cardboard were discussed, and finding of research revealed
different perception of consumers regarding different types of packaging
material, but most of the consumers were found to be in the favor of plastic
for the purpose of packaging, as its not heavy and also can retain freshness of
the products and chances of leakage are also minimal. (Lynsey; Laura; Armstrong; Heather, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
Design

·       
Research
reveals that consumers feeling regarding the product packaging are actually
transferred into how they are treating the product, that means innovative
packaging shapes can create an iconic brand image on consumers mind, by cutting
the clutter at surrounded market place. (Arun;
Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali, 2012) Moreover research also concludes
that beautiful and attractive packaging styles influences the purchase
decision, and results in increase purchase of the product. (Golnesa, 2013) Moreover it is a
belief of most of the consumers that design of products is directly associated
with the ease of use, product storage and its carry from one place to another. (Pinya, 2004)

 

 

 

·       
Color:

·       
We are
living in the modem era and consumers now-a-days also possess color vocabulary
and therefore they will evaluate the color of the packaging used with its link
with the product, that means according to the consumers there are some colors
which can be used for each product category and all the remaining colors are
misfit for that particular product category, that’s why color is also treated
as the useful element of packaging. Moreover color can make brand distinctive as compared to all the other competing brands, if the company
became able to use color which other competing brands cannot opt easily. (Keller, 2009)

 

·       
Consumer
perception related with color varies, with respect to difference in cultures,
but as we knows that this is an era of globalization and mass competition
therefore because of change in demographics and other trends there is a visible
change, in the color preferences (Singh,
2006) but the element which can help marketers in selecting the color
for their brands is that there are some certain colors which are treated as
best suited for particular types of products, therefore marketers must use
color associations while selection the color or color combination for their
band instead of general consumer thinking about the color. (Randi & Joseph, 1999)

·       
Verbal Elements of Packaging:

·       
Information
conveyed by verbal elements is helpful in initiating or boosting of consumers
thought process. (Silayoi and Speece,
2004) there are several components of verbal elements of packaging and
each of these components have a significant role in influencing consumer buying
behavior. (Adam and Ali, 2014)

 

 

 

·       
Product Information:

·       
Increase of
concerns towards health also increases the importance of labeling and now it is
the duty of manufacturing company and marketers to include product information
in order to ease purchase decision. (Pinya,
2004)

 

·       
It is also indicated by research that if company wants to
increase the credibility of the product they must jot down accurate information
about the product as it will help consumers in making decision, on the other
hand if the information is confusing or does not seems to be appropriate then
it can create confusion and produces negative impact on the brand. Research
also revealed that product information has lesser or no importance to those
having low involvement in product purchase, and for those having high
involvement with the product, information related with it having significant
importance, and for making appropriate decision the information related with
the product will also take into the account, as it has the ability to change or
alter the attitude of consumers having high involvement with the product.

 

·       
 (Pinya, 2004) Nutritional Information: Diet
and Life style of consumers are the potent factors due to which nutritional
information is also treated as important part of verbal elements of packaging,
study conducted in the year 2009 indicated that nutritional information must be
properly indicated on packaging especially in the category of food related
product as this type of information affect the food choices of the customers. (Josephine, 2009) Research provides
the reference of research conducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2006 at
jotted down three very important findings associated with the effect of
nutritional information on packaging on consumer buying behavior

 

·       
 a) Consumer want to have nutritional
information on product packaging but the level of knowledge they have about the
nutritional information is very low

 

·       
 b) Consumer prefer the nutritional
information which can describe the function of nutrition’s on human body

 

·       
c) The decision which is made by the
consumers related with their diet is only for short term.

 

·       
Change or alter the attitude of consumers having high
involvement with the product. (Pinya,
2004) Nutritional Information: Diet and Life style of consumers are the
potent factors due to which nutritional information is also treated as
important part of verbal elements of packaging, study conducted in the year
2009 indicated that nutritional information must be properly indicated on
packaging especially in the category of food related product as this type of
information affect the food choices of the customers. (Josephine, 2009) Research provides the reference of research
conducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2006 at jotted down three very
important findings associated with the effect of nutritional information on packaging
on consumer buying behavior a) Consumer
want to have nutritional information on product packaging but the level of
knowledge they have about the nutritional information is very low b) Consumer prefer the nutritional
information which can describe the function of nutrition’s on human body c) The decision which is made by the
consumers related with their diet is only for short term.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

·       
Research is
done by considering variables used by other researchers in their prior research
work on the topic of packaging and its impact on consumer purchase decision and
as we have found sufficient material related with our requirements. That’s why
the research is descriptive in nature and the type of investigation we have
performed was causal as the research was based upon cause and effect
relationship.

 

·       
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

 

·       
After detailed statistical testing it has been observed that
there is a significant impact of living area and level of education on the
selection of any particular brand of chocolates, while gender and level of
income does not have any impact on the section of any particular brand that
means people lives in different areas irrespect of their gender and level of
income have their own preference of chocolate brand.

·       
Similarly level of education is also influencing the purchase
of particular chocolate brand. While it has been identified that the
nutritional information which is associated with verbal elements of packaging
does not have any impact on the selection of chocolate brand, and this has been
found true for both the brands. Furthermore design of packaging is the only
element which does not have impact on consumer buying behaviour associated with
the purchase of chocolates, but this is not found.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
REFERENCES

 

Journals:

1 Adam, M Amir & Ali, Kamran, (2014), “Impact of Visual
Elements of Packaging of Packaged Milk on Consumer Buying Behavior”,
Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(11), 119-160

2 Arun Kumar Agariya; Ankur, Johari; Hitesh, K Sharma; Udit, N S
Chandraul, Deepali. Singh (2012). “The Role of Packaging in Brand
Communication” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research,
3 (2), 1-13.

3 Golnesa Ahmadi, H. R. (2013). “An Investigation of Visual
Components of Packaging on Food Consumer Behavior”. Business and Economics
Research, 3 (2), 1-11.

4 Hannele Kauppinen-Raisanen, H. T. (2010). “Exploring
consumers’ product-specific color meanings”, An International Journal, 13 (3),
287-308

5 Josephine M Wills, D. B.-B. (2009). Exploring global consumer
attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels. Nutrition Reviews , 67
(1), S102-S106

6 Lynsey Hollywood; Laura, Wells; Armstrong, Gillian; Heather,
Farley, (2013). “Thinking outside the carton: attitudes towards milk
packaging”. British Food Journal, 115 (6), 899-912.

7 Mousavi1, Seyed Alireza & Mohammad Mirzad Jahromi, (2014),
“Examining the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior case
study: comparison of pasteurized 1.5l milk of brands roozaneh and mihan”, 4
(1), 1038-1044

8 Pinya Silayoi, M. S. (2004). “Packaging and purchase decisions
An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”
British Food Journal, 106, 607-628.

9 Randi, Priluck Grossman & Joseph, Z. Wisenblit, (1999),
“What we know about color choices” Journal of Marketing Practice Applied
Marketing Science, 5 (3), 78-88

10 Robert L. Underwood & Julie L. Ozanne (1998). “Is your
packaging an effective communicator? A normative framework for increasing the

communicative competence of packaging” Journal of Marketing
Communications, 4, 207-220

11 Rundh, B. (2013). “Linking Packaging to Marketing: How
packaging is influencing the marketing strategy”. British Food Journal,
115(11), 1547-1563.

12 Seyed Alireza Mousavi and Mohammad Mirzad Jahromi, (2014),
“Examining the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior Case
Study: Comparison of Pasteurized 1.5L Milk of brands Roozaneh and Mihan” Indian
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4 (2) , 1038-1044

13 Singh, S. (2006). “Impact of Color on Marketing”. Emerald ,
44, 783-789.

14
Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2004). “Packaging and purchase decisions: An
exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”.
British Food Journal, 106 (8), 607-628. 

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