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720 objectivity and incremental validity to the

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720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL –
TWO ROUNDS OF FEEDBACK (PRE AND POST-TEST)

ABSTRACT –

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Performance
Appraisal is an important tools in the hands of personnel management because
this technique accomplishes the main objective of the organization to the development
of the people by appraising the worth of the individual.

The
rational behind these appraisal system is that different evaluation
perspectives add objectivity and incremental validity to the assessment of
individual performance. The success of an organization depends on the
performance of the employees and it’s the human tendency to judge everything
and everyone around them. There are different method of Performance Appraisal
based on the type of the organization, size of the organization and also the
period when it is used. The 720 degree evaluation is emerging as a possible
alternative appraisal technique. Organizations are slowly but steadily
realizing the need for this new system, which is better than the existing 360
degree evaluation, especially in terms of the focus of the evaluation and the
involvement of the evaluators in the process.

So
as the name suggests 720 degree performance appraisal is the evaluation of the
performance of the employee from all the aspects and giving timely feedback to
ensure that the person is able to achieve the set goals before the next
appraisal.

In
modern business scenarios where job roles have become more diverse it’s not
easy to measure the performance of any employee. This is where performance
appraisal methods can be really helpful .This paper subjects to the need of 720
degree performance appraisal in current business scenario and justify an upper
hand of 720 degree performance appraisal over other traditional approach.  

 

INTRODUCTION

One
of the major challenges of modern competitive organizations and institutions is
Employee Development where Employees are the greatest Asset and backbone of an organization
so called as the Human Resource. It is the very need of every institution to value,
nurture and retain their employees with them, which is beneficial for organizational
success. In the beginning an employee is like a Flower Bud which has to be
given proper care and support through developmental activities to blossom like
a Flower. Development can take place through number of training, motivation and
developmental activities. Motivational factors like Promotion, Appraisals, Recognition,
Respect and Rewards are the few to enhance the employee skills and activities .So
employer need to spend some time and resource in developing and appraising
their employees. Benefits of Performance Appraisal are reaped by both employee
as well as the organization where he renders his service.

From
the time Human beings have evolved they have employed different methods to
appraise the performance starting from the traditional “comparison method” to
the modern “720 degree appraisal method”

The
720 degree evaluation is the emerging as a possible alternative appraisal
technique. Organizations are slowly but steadily realizing the need for this new
system, which is better than existing 360 degree evaluation, especially in
terms of the focus of the evaluation and the involvement of the evaluators in
the process. For instance, the 360 degree appraisal facilities the formal
assessment of an employee by the evaluators like the customer or the employee, possibly
with the help of appraisal forms. But the 720 degree evaluation goes one step
further and insists on a better focused, personalized and in depth review of
the employees occupying managerial positions. The evaluation of the employee is
usually done through detailed personal interviews with the performance
evaluators. The 720 degree evaluation concentrates more on what matters the
most for an organization. For instance, it could be clients views and perceptions
of the performance of the employees. The merit of this method is that it makes
both the evaluator and the employee happy and comfortable. While the clients
would appreciate a company which is more responsible and serious in knowing
their opinions, the appraised employee would feel happy to be evaluated and
appreciated by the clients they serve.

To
Judge the performance of the employees, the traditional approach is no longer
effective, because of heavy workload of managers and supervisors, they unable to
give sufficient time for judgment and for fair, accurate performance
appraisals. The major problem in the traditional methods of appraisal was that
it did not guide the employee after the appraisal that’s why the 720°
performance appraisal was introduced. Which will helps the managers to measure,
analyzed the performance of the employees at the same time it will provide
proper feedback and guidance to the employees to achieve their set target
effectively.  

 

LITERATURE REVIEW –

A
study on “Customer Centric Evalations”by Galbreath, Richard D and also the
paper “Ask The Customer “by Jacobson, Leo, demonstrates the importance of using
a 720 degree performance appraisal system , in the sense that in such type of
an appraisal system, the expectations of customers are clearly aligned with the
performance goals of the employees. This increases the loyalty of the customers
towards the organizations thereby increasing profits of the organizations. Another
paper “Clarifying the structure of justice using fairness perceptions of
performance appraisal practices” by Paul W Thurston Jr, Pin points that the
new trend of using a 720 degree appraisal system, does away with all biases, prejudices
and discriminations while evaluating of employees.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY –

·        
To identify the difference between the 720 degree performance
appraisal system and traditional performance appraisal system.

·        
To identify the need to incorporate the new 720 degree
performance appraisal system.

·        
To study the various dimensions of the 720 degree performance
To identify the difference between the 720 degree performance appraisal system
and traditional performance appraisal system.

·        
To identify the need to incorporate the new 720 degree
performance appraisal system.

·        
To study the various dimensions of the 720 degree performance
appraisal system.

·        
To develop a model to determine the role of 720 degree
performance appraisal for evaluation of professors in educational institutions.

 DIMENSIONS OF 720-DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

a) PRE APPRAISAL FEEDBACK   This is
the first appraisal step that is done after the feedback is collected from the
different dimensions or people with whom the employee would interact. In this
step, the performance is evaluated, targets are set and feedback or training is
organized to help the employee achieve the target.

 b) SELF APPRAISAL   The
employee is given a questionnaire and asked to evaluate his performance and
through this method, the employee gets an opportunity to express his thoughts
and his valuation of strengths, weakness and judge his performance. This is an
appraisal by the person himself/herself.

c) PEERS/COLLEAGUES APPRAISAL   The
feedback from the peers or colleagues is important as it helps to understand
the ability of the employee to work as a team, co-operate, co-ordinate with
others and bring out the best. The peers are supposed to give a 

d) CUSTOMER APPRAISAL In order to
survive in the current competitive market, Organizations aim at achieving high
customer satisfaction. Customer feedback helps to analyze the customer? point
of view and help to improve the person and the Organization.

e) SUB-ORDINATES APPRAISAL   The
feedback of the sub-ordinates is essential to analyze the organizing skills of
the employee and to understand his abilities like communication and motivating
abilities, ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities and way of
handling responsibilities.

 f) MANGERS/SUPERIORS APPRAISAL   In
this, the performance, responsibilities and the attitude of the employee is
evaluated by the Superiors or Managers.

 g) POST APPRAISAL FEEDBACK   It is
this step that makes the 720-degree performance appraisal different and better
than the 360-degree performance appraisal method. In this step, the performance
is evaluated based on the target set in the Pre appraisal and feedback is
given. Timely feedback and guidance helps to make the employee improve his
performance. 

MERITS OF 720-DEGREE PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL:  720 Degree performance appraisal will help in
creating a synergetic work environment and will help to bring out the best of
each employee. The other benefits of the 720 degree performance appraisal are
as follows: 

 It helps in better analysis and improved
feedback from different dimensions

 Helps to develop a better and co-operative
team

 Reduces the appraisal barriers like prejudice,
bias and discrimination

 Customer feedback is valued. Better customer
service and satisfaction can be obtained

 Encourages transparency and feeling of treated
justly.  

DEMERITS OF 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL:

The appraisers consider that 720
Degree performance appraisal method is a time consuming process.

The appraisers consider that the
monetary requirement is higher for 720 Degree performance appraisal method as
appraisal/feedback has to be done twice. 

The appraisers consider that there
might be quality problem as all the 7 dimensions of appraisal in 720 Degree
performance appraisal method might not be accurate.

 

 WHY COMPANIES SHOULD USE 720…?

This system is more development
focused than performance alone, and supplements training and development
functions in a better way. A powerful developmental tool because when conducted
at regular intervals it helps to keep a track of the changes, others’
perceptions about the employees. Many organizations are beginning to realize
that the skill base of their executives and managers does not match the
requirements of a rapidly changing environment. Without these critical
competencies, executives and managers are less likely to be able to lead these
organizations toward successful implementation of strategic changes 

METHODOLOGY

The study is descriptive in nature.
The secondary data is used for the study. The secondary data is collected from
the various books, journals, articles etc.

 

 

FINDINGS:

As per research paper International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research here are the
findings

PARAMETERS

RESULT IN PERCENTAGE

CURRENT APPRAISAL METHOD USED

More than 30% of the
selected New Economy companies use 360 Degree performance appraisal method
and Management by Objective. Approximately 25% of the companies use the Human
Resource accounting method.

AWARENESS OF 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL METHOD

30% of the appraisers are
aware of the 720 Degree performance appraisal method and only 8% of the
employees are aware of 720 Degree performance appraisal method. Most of the
employees and appraisers are not aware of the 720 degree performance
appraisal method.

 EMPLOYEES
APPRAISED OWN PERFORMANCE

Approximately 61% of the
employees have appraised their own performance in their career and were able
to evaluate their career graph. Employees are able to appraise their own
performance effectively.

 EMPLOYEE APPRAISE OTHER EMPLOYEES

75% of the appraisers
stated that employees will be able to appraise other employees effectively.
75% of the appraisers consider that the employees who come in contact with
the other employees will be able to appraise them better as they work
together and will be able to evaluate each other in different levels.
Appraisers state that employees will be able to appraise other employee
performance effectively.

INFLUENCE – PERSONAL BIASES

68% of the employees stated
that Personal bias and prejudice influenced their appraisal. Hence, it is
necessary to introduce an objective multi-dimensional appraisal method like
the 720 Degree performance appraisal method where personal bias cannot
influence the appraisal process.

DISADVANTAGES OF 720 DEGREE
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD

a) 85% of the appraisers
consider that 720 Degree performance appraisal method is a time consuming
process.
b) 10% of the appraisers
consider that the monetary requirement is higher for 720 Degree performance
appraisal method as appraisal/feedback has to be done twice.
 c) 5% of the appraisers consider that there
might be quality problem as all the 7 dimensions of appraisal in 720 Degree
performance appraisal method might not be accurate.
d) The appraisers consider
the 720 Degree performance appraisal method as a time consuming

 IMPLEMENT 720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
METHOD

55% of the appraisers
stated that they would like to implement the method and 45% were not
interested.

720 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
METHOD – IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

90% of the appraisers
consider the 720 Degree performance appraisal method as an effective method
and are positive that implementation of this method would help to improve
their performance.

SATISFIED – CURRENT APPRAISAL METHOD

80% of the employees stated
that they were not happy with the current appraisal method and would prefer
the use of a more effective method to measure their performance. Hence, it is
necessary to implement the 720 Degree performance appraisal method. Employee
respondents are not happy with the current appraisal methods used and hope
for a change for the better

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

After the research on 720
degree appraisal, we come on the conclusion that it should be a part of every organization
and not only in industries but in education institutions too. Compared to any
other appraisal system 720 degree performance appraisal is effective and would
be successful as it includes giving candid feedback and follow up. The need of
720 degree appraisal is because this is an objective method that cannot be
influence by prejudice, personal bias and discrimination.  It increases transparency and and feeling of
treated justly.

 

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